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A. F. Morrison
CROWBLL'S HANDY INFORMATION S&BIES
HOW TO PLAY
CHAfiLOTTE BOABDMAK BOOEBS
THOMAS T. CROWELL & 00.
A r Morrison
Bi Thomas Y. Cbowixl ft Co.
In preparing the present work the com-
piler wishes to give full credit to those
hooks which she has had occasioQ to use
as authorities for the general principles
and laws of the game and for such of its
history as the limited space of the Iktbo-
DCCTioN permitted. The list is as follows:
" The Chess-Player's Handhook," hy
Howard Staunton; "Chess," by E. F.
Green ; " The Principles of Chess in The-
ory and Practice," and " The Art of
Chess," by James Mason ; " The Ameri-
can Cyclopaedia," and " The Life of Phili-
dor," by George Allen.
C. B. E.
May 1, 1907.
II. The Boabd and the Men . . .
The Game — The Board — The Men
— Setting Up the Board — Names of
the Pieces and Pawns — Names ot the
III. Object of the Gaue and Obder of
IV. The Moves
King's Move — Queen's Move —
Bishop's Move — Knight's Move —
Rook's Move — Pawn's Move.
V. Technical Terms Explained . .
VI. Chess Rules
Rules when Odds are Given —
Kules for Play by Consultation —
Rules for Play by Correspondence.
VII. Suggestions fob Beoinnebs . . . i
Familiarity with Technical Terms
— Playing with Either Color — Value
of Practicing One Game — Playing by
Time — Developing the Game — The
Value of the Pieces — Studying the
VIIL. STSTraa of Notation .... 70
EogliBh Notation — Qermaii Nota-
IX. Practice Gahi SO
X, Chess Opbninob 103
The King's Knight's Opening — The
King's Bishop's Opening — The Queen's
Bishop's Opening — The King's Gam-
bit — The Gambit Declined — The
Queen's Oambit — Irregular Open-
XI. End Qahes 110
XII. Middle Gaues 132
Xin. Conclusion 148
Chess Problems — Key to Chess
Problems — Examples of Masterpla;
HOW TO PLAY CHESS
The game of Chesa originated in India
about five thousand years ago and is the
oldest and moat scientific game of a seden-
tary character. The name comes from the
Persian shah, or King which is the name
of the principal Piece and upon whose cap-
ture the fate of the game depends,
TTie history of Chesa is extremely in-
teresting as people of all nations, famous
in all professions, have given it careful at-
tention and study. From its origin in
India, its popularity spread Eastward to
China and Japan; and then Westward,
through Persia and Eyaantium to Europe
where, during the Middle Ages, it became
3 . . - _ ^0W TO PLAT CSESB
the far6rite-'paallHi'e."of the cloister and
' the ^emujt ■" Jk Jhis connection it is worthy
of note tJiftt ChesB. iatbe.enly game of the
kind that has always been approved by
the priesthood of all faiths ; Catholic,
Protestant, Buddhist, and Moslem. In
Philidor's day, during the first half of the
Eighteenth Century, it waa the custom in
Europe for the musicians at the royal
chapels to amuse themselves with Chess
when their services were not required dur-
ing High Mass; and it was for this rea-
son that the name of PbiUdor has lived
in the history of Chess rather than in the
history of music, for he was a great mu-
sician as well as a remarkably skilled
Since the invention of the game, five
thousand years ago, its development may
be said to have undergone three distinct
periods. The first lasted until about 600
A. D., and during that time it was flayed
by four persons, the move of each Chess-
man being about the same as it is now, but
a dice waa throivn to decide which
one -was to be played. The second period
lasted from the Seventh to the SixteeDth
Century, during which time the game was
reduced to a contest between two persons.
The element of chance was also done away
with, and the dice discarded. The third
and last stage in the development of the
game began at the close of the Sixteenth
Century and continues until and during
the present day.
During the last century, Oheas period-
icals were introduced and public contests
were established between famous players
or between the different clubs. Chess as-
semblies, tournaments, and contests for
amateurs were also first held in the Nine-
teenth Century which added greatly to
the interest and general popularity of the
game. To-day, even the daily newspapers
give space to the subject, recording the
moves in match tournament games so that
a person may follow each play by reading
his paper just as readily as if he were an
eye-witness of the game.
In connection with the study of the
4 BOW TO PLAY CBESa
game, it ia interesting to know that among
its devotees have been such monarchs aa
Charles XII., Napoleon I., Frederick the
Great, Charlemagne, and Haroun al-
Baahid; and such philosophers aa Vol-
taire, Rosseau and Franklin.
The literature of the game has been con-
tributed to by writers of all nations and,
■while the student cannot be expected to
become familiar with all that has been
■written on the subject, he should know,
at least, the namea which are most prom-
inent in connection with the scientific de-
velopment of Chess. Among them are:
Hanstein, Von der Laaa, Lange, and Har-
witz, of Germany ; Cunningham, Janssen,
Sarratt, M'Donnell, and Staunton, of
England ; PetrofF and Kieseritzky, of Rus-
sia; Szen and Lowenthal, of Hungary;
Stein, of Holland ; Stamma, of Syria ;
Philidor, Desehappelles, and La Bourdeu-
nais, of France ; Kuy Lopez and Xerone,
of Spain ; Dubois, Salvio, Paoli Boi and
Del Eio, of Italy; and Morphy of the
United States. Tho East, where the game
origioated, has also contributed to its liter-
ature and the Asiatic names associated
with it are : Sokeiker, Bhazes, Suli, Dami-
ri, Ibn Sherf Mohammed, Ghulam Xas-
sim and Ali Shatranji.
"While Chess is a purely scientific form
of amusement, and one that requires con-
stant practice and study, if a player de-
sires to become skilled, it affords such
pleasure to those who are among its de-
votees and offers such exceptional oppor-
tunities for mental development that no
person of culture can afford to neglect it.
Of course, the scope of the present volume
only permits a survey of the general prin-
ciples and laws of the game hut the com-
piler has endeavored to give the student a
thorough groundwork for ordinary pur-
poses; but for the benefit of those who
wish to go into the minutest details of the
most scientific play, a Bibliography has
been prepared to which the student is re-
ferred after be has mastered the contents
of Ae present work,
CHAPTER II -'
the boabb and thb meit.
The Game of Chess is played on a
board by two persons or parties, each hav-
ing sixteen men; eight on the first rank
called Pieces, and eight on the second
rank, called Pawna.
A Chess Board is a perfect square which
is further divided into sixty-four smaller
squares of alternate, contrasting colors;
one light or white, and one dark or black.
The light colored square is always referred
to as White, and the dark colored square
is always referred to as Black. The board
is placed between the two players so that
each has a white square at his right hand,
THE BOARD ASD THE MEN 7
and one half of the board is called the
King's Side, and the other half the
Queen's Side, but the beginner will under-
stand the arrangement more clearly when
he is familiar with the men.
The Game of Chess is played with thir-
ty-two men, sixteen of which are light in
color and referred to as White ; and sixteen
dark and spoken of as Black. The player
or party on one side of the hoard has the
Elack men while the player or party on
the other side has the White men. The
Chessmen are divided into two classes:
Pieces and Pawns. When the hoard ia
set up the Pieces stand on the first rank
One King of each color, indicated by
One Queen of each color, indicated by
S BOW TO PLAY CEESa
Two Bishops of each color, indicated
Two Knights of each color, indicated
Two Rooks of each color, indicated bj
Formerly the word Castle was used,
but it is now almost obsolete, the word
Eook being given the preference.
The Pawns, of which there are eight of
each color, are all alike in design and
stand on the second rank at the opcn-
- ing of the game. They are indicated by
Setting ttp the Boabd.
Diagram I shows the board arranged
for the play. The student will note that
the King and Queen occupy the two mid-
dle squares, each Queen being on the
square of ber own color. Next come the
Bishops, one on each side of the King and
TEE BOARD AXD THE MEN 9
Queen; then the KnightB, and finally the
Rooks which occupy the comer squares.
The Pawns are arranged on the squares in
front of the Pieces.
Queen'8 Side. King
Pieces and Fawns in Position,
10 BOW TO FLAY CEES8
Names of the Pieces ahd Pawns.
The chessmen of each player are fur-
ther named according to their positions
upon the board. Thus, the Bishop next
to the Queen ia called the Queen's Bishop,
indicated by QB ; and the Bishop nest to
the King is called the King's Bishop, in-
dicated by KB. The Knight on the
Queen's side is called the Queen's Knight,
indicated by QKt, and the Knight on the
King's side is called the King's Knight,
indicated by KKt. The Book on the
Queen's side is called the Queen's Book,
indicated by QB, and the Book on the
King's side is called the King's Book, in-
dicated by KB.
The Pawns are named after the Pieces
in front of which they stand. Thus, be-
ginning at the left (aa shown in diaobam
i) the Pawns are called the Queen's Book's
Pawn (QEP); the Queen's Knight's
Pawn (QKtP); the Queen's Bishop's
Pawn (QBP) ; the Queen's Pawn, (QP) ;
the King's Pawn (KP) ; the King's Bish-
TEE BOARD AND THE MEH 11
op's Pawn, (KBP) ; the King's Knight's
Pawn, (KKtP); and the King's Rook's
Pawn, (KRP). The student should fa-
miliarize himself with the letters by which
the different Pieces and Pawns are distin-
guished so that he may readily identify
them, as the names are seldom used in full.
Names of the Sqdabes.
The squares are named after the Pieces
which occupy them at the beginning of the
game. The square occupied by the Queen
is called the Queen's Square (QSq) and
the squares in front of it are numbered in
order across the board thus: Q2; Q3; Q4;
Q5 ; Q6 ; Q7 ; Q8. It will be noted from
diagbam: II., that Q8 of the Black Queen
is the Queen's Square of the White Queen,
as each player counts from his own side of
the board. The names of the squares are
abbreviated thus: KSq; K2; K3; K4;
K5; K6; K7; K8; KBSq; KB2; KB3;
KB4; KB.5; KB6; KB7; KB8; KKtSq;
KKt2; KKt3 KKt4; KKtS; KKt6
KKt7; KKt8; KRSq; KR2; ^Si
12 SOW TO PLAY CBB88
KR4;KR5;KEe;KR7; KE8 ; and cor-
respondingly on the Queen's side. If the
student will study diagbam ii with care,
Showing the Names of the S
he will have no difficulty in recognizing
the different squares when reference is
made to them, ,
OBJECT OF THE GAME AITD OBDEB OP PEO-
The game of Chess, as already stated,
is played by two persona or parties, and the
object of each is to capture his opponent's
King or place him in such a position that
he cannot move without being taken. If
the King is attacked, or threatened with
capture, the attacking party must give
warning by calling out " Cheek " ; and if
the King, in the next move cannot avoid
the attack he is " checkmate " or " mate "
and the game is at an end, the person hav-
ing first captured his opponent's King be-
ing the winner. The student will note
that the game stops one move short of the
final play which takes the King.
If, for any reason, the Kings occupy
13 ,- i
14 BOW TO PLAY CBESa
Buch positions upon the board that neither
can be captured the game is drawn.
The players first arrange the board as
shown in diaobam i, and draw lots for
the color with which each is to play. The
game is generally opened by. the White
Men. When the player who has drawn
the White Men moves a Piece or a Pawn,
it is his opponent's turn, and so the game
continues, each moving alternately, one
man at a time, of his own color and cap-
turing only the men of the opposite color.
Under only one condition, of which the
student will learn later, is a player allowed
to make two moves in succession. Until
a student has had considerable experience,
and learned to play a game of his own he
will do well to move each Piece once be-
fore he has moved any Piece twice, as this
will enable him to keep hia forces together
and prevent needless exposure and weak-
ness in his <lefence and attack.
Both distance and direction must he
taken into consideration with every move,
as well as the advantages that are to be
OBJECT OF TBB GAME 15
gained by moving any one Piece in pref-
erence to another, but the student must be-
come familiar with the relative value of
the Pieces and Pawns and with their re-
spective moves, before this can be made
perfectly clear to him.
In learning the moves of the various
Pieces and Pawns, the beginner is advised
to have a board before him and to secure
the assistance of an experienced player if
available; for while they are very simple
to understand when demonstrated, their
description in words may sound compli-
cated. The diagrams, however, should be
The King's Movei.
The King may move one square at a
time in any direction. Thus, when the
Black King, for example, stands on Q5
he " commands," or may move, to any one
of the eight adjacent squares as indicated
in DIAGRAM III. Should one of these
squares be occupied, however, by one of
16 ,. ,
THE MOVES 17
his own men, lie could not move to it, or
should his adversary, the White King, be
near, his move would he further restricted.
The King's Move.
For example : Suppose the Black King
stands on Q5, a Black Pawn stands on KO
and the White King stands on K2, Now
18 HOW TO FLAY CBE88
the Black King commands all of the ad-
joining squares, but he can only move to
one of six of them and not to any one of
the eight, as he could in diagbam hi.
He cannot move to K6 because his own
Pawn occupies it and also because the
White King could move into it were he
alone on the board. Nor can the Black
King move into Q6, because that also is a
square within the range of movement of
his adversary, or one of the eight squares
commanded by the White King were he
alone upon the board. Thus, the sphere
of influence of the two Kings overlaps at
K6 and Q6 with the result that those two
squares are neutral territory, forbidden to
both by the fundamental laws of Chess,
for the Kings must always have an intei^
val of at least one square between them.
As the object of the game is to capture
or checkmate the adversary's King, it is
readily seen that he is of paramount im-
portance, and that the moves of all the
other Pieces and Pawns are made with
reference to him. ,
the moves 19
The Queen's Move.
The Queen moves in any direction, like
tbe King, but she is not restricted to dis-
The Queen'a Move.
tance and may cover any number of unoc-
cupied squares to the limits of the board
in a horizontal, vertical and diagonal line.
20 BOW TO PLAY CBE8B
Thus, a Queen on Q4, as shown in dia-
OBAM IV, commands twenty-seven squares.
Owing to the squares at her command, she
is the most powerful of tlie Pieces, but lior
power would be disproportionally great
were it not that she can be exchanged only
for the opposing Queen without material
loss. When the Queen occupies a side
square, the sum of the diagonal moves pos-
sible to her is always aeven.
The Bishop's Move.
The Bishop moves over any number of
unoccupied squares in a diagonal lino,
from which it will be seen that he always
occupies squares of the same color as tho
one on which he stands at the beginning
of the game. As the King's Bishop is on
a square of one color and the Queen's
Bishop on a square of another color, at
the opening of the game, it will be seen
that the two Bishops are easily distin-
guished and never interfere with each
other. From a center square, Q4, for ex-
mple as shown on diagrah v, the Biskip
commands thirteen squares. When he
occupies a side square, however, the sum
The Bishop's Move.
of the diagonals to which he can move is
always seven, the same as the Queeo. ,
*' ' k. ,ooglc
22 how to plat cbeb8
The Knioht'b Move.
The Knight's move is L shaped and
more difficult to explain than any of the
The Knight's Move.
others. He moves horizontally or verti-
cally in any direction, two squares for-
ward, and one square to either the right or
the left, leaping over the intervening
squares whether they are occupied or not.
Thus the Xnight on Q4 commands eight
squares as shown on diaobam vi. By
placing the Knight on any of the center
squares the student will see that his move
appears to he a leap from the square on
which he stands to the next but one of a
different color. .From a mathematical
point, the Enight's move is the diagonal
of a rectangle of six squares and is as reg-
ular as that of any of the other Pieces.
Owing to the character of his move he is
less liable to resistance than any of the
odier Pieces. .
The Eook's Move.
The Rook moves in four directions —
parallel to the sides of the board, and over
any number of unoccupied squares. Thus,
a rook standing on Q4 commands fourteen
squares as shown in diaobam vii and
is next in power to the Queen.
HOW TO PLAY CBESa
The Pawn's Move.
The Pawn moves forward only, one
square at a time; excepting in the first
move when it may move one or two squares
at the option of the player. In moving
THE MOVEB 25
two squares, however, if the Pawn passes
an adverse Pawn, it may be taken in pass-
ing by the adversary. When a Pawn has
advanced eight squares in any file, it must
immediately be exchanged for a Piece of
its own color, at the choice of its owner,
after ■which it acts as if it were an original
Piece just moved into that square by the
From this it will be seen that there may
he three or more Queens, Bishops, Knights
or Books on the board at the same time be-
longing to the same player, though the
number of Chessmen belonging to each
player can never exceed sixteen. This
power of the Pawn to become a Piece in-
creases its importance, in spite of its slow
progress across the board and makes it of
more value than would at first be imag-
ined. A fine player may always be iden-
tified by his judicious handling of the
While the Pawn's move is forward in
a vertical line, its power of capturing radi-
.ates forward diagonally. Thus if a White
26 HOW TO PLAY CBtJSB
Pawn occtipies QB3 and a Black Pa^vn
stands on Q5, the White Pawn moves di-
agonally from its QB3 to Q4 and captures
the Black Pawn, If there were no ad-
verse Piece to capture, the White Pawn
would move to QB4.
TEOHITICAI, TESTIS EZFLAINE^
Adverse Piece. A Piece of the oppo-
Attack. This term may be explained
in several different ways :
(1) Any force commanding a square
occupied by an adverse force ia said to at-
tack the latter, though attack may exist
without power to capture.
(2) A combined movement of two or
more Pieces tending to compel the adver-
sary to abandon some particular force or
(3) A combination against the Sing or
(4) The player opening the game (gen-
erally the White), makes the attack.
(5) A strategic move directed against
a weak part of the raiemy's force.
21. ,_ ,
28 BOW TO PLAY CREBS
Blindfold Chess, or Chess Sans Voir.
Games played without seeing either the
board or the men. The power of playing
at leaat one game in this way is goierally
acquired by every player ; and persons who
are skilled in the science of Cbeaa have
been known to conduct as many ae a dozen
such games simultaneously.
Capturing. Moving a Piece or Pawn
into a square occupied by an adverse Piece
or Pawn and taking or " capturing " it.
Any Piece or Pawn may be captured with
the exception of the King, his capture is
accomplished by " checkmate." The vari-
ous Pieces capture according to the direc-
tion and extent of their respective moves.
The Pawns, however, vary from this rule
and are allowed to move one square for-
ward in a diagonal line from the one on
which they stand, in order to capture an
adverse Piece or Pawn.
Castling. A combined move of King
and Rook allowed to each player once
in a game and consisting of moving the
Rook to the square next to the King, and
TECHNICAL TERUa EXPLAINED 29
the King to the square on the other side
of the Rook. After castling with the
King's Rook the King occupies KKtSq.
and the Kook occupies KBSq., as shown
in DIA6BAM Tin. After castling with
<1} Before Castling.
(2) After Castling.
CsBtling With The King's Rook.
the Queen's Book the King occupies
QBSq. and the Eook occupies QSq. The
conditions under which castling are al-
(1) That neither King nor Rook has
30 BOW TO FLAY CBESS
(2) That no Pieces or Pawns inter-
(3) That the King is not in check.
(4) That the King does not have to
cross and does not move to a square com-
manded by an opposing Piece or Pawn.
Center. Pawns in the middle field, es-
pecially if well supported. It is usually a
great object to keep the center intact, or
unbroken and to break the center of the
adversary if it be stronger,
Chech. The warning which must be
g^ven when the adversary's King is at-
tacked. In such a case, the King is said
to be " in check " and the threatened cap-
ture must be avoided by:
(1) Taking the attacking Piece or
(2) Moving the King.
(3) Interposing or moving another
Piece or Pawn between the King and the
attacking Piece or Pawn.
For example, if the White King stands
on QEi and the Black Queen's Eook
stands on QR8, then the White King is
TECHNICAL TERMS EXPLAINED 31
in check by the Black Rook. White may
avoid the check by moving his King to
QKt3, QKt4 or QKtS ; or he may take
the attacking Piece with his Bishop sup-
posing it to be on Qi, in a diagonal line
with the sqnare occupied by the attacking
Checkmate, or Mate. A position in
which the King cannot by any means avoid
being captured by the opposing force. An
example of simple checkmate is shown in
DiAo&AM IS. The student will see that
if the White King remains where he
is he can be taken by the Black Knight ;
if he moves to KBSq. or KKt2, he can bo
taken by the Black Bishop as both of those
squares are commanded by him; and if
he moves into KR2 again, he comes within
the sphere of influence of the Black
Knight whom he is trying to avoid. Thus,
it will be seen that he has no means of es-
Close Game. A game in which the de-
velopment of the Pieces is effected chiefly
behind the Pawns. This method requires
32 HOW TO PLAY CHEBa
the greatest accuracy and judgment and
is only adopted by the moat experienced
players. (See Open Game).
Vowhinaiion. The concerted action of
two or more Pieces for a particular ob-
ject; two or more moves for a common
TECHNICAL TERMS BIPLAISED 33
purpose. Skill in making efEective com-
binations is accounted the SQrest test of a
Command. A square is commanded
when any Piece or Pawn occupying it may
be attacked. A Piece is said to command
a square when it can move into it.
Counter Attack. An indirect and ef-
fective way of neutralizing an attack. For
example, a combination against one King
may be halted or destroyed by an equally
strong combination against the other; or
an attacked force may be successfully
guarded by an attack upon an equal or
greater adverse Piece or Pawn.
Counter Gamhit. The sacrifice of some
part of the second player's force, usually
a Pawn, in the opening of the game to
obtain an advantage in position. (See
Openings and Gamlrit).
Defence. The correlative of attack.
The second player, generally the Black, at
the banning of the game, is said to have
the defence, as the first player is said to
34 now TO PLAY CHESS
have the attack. Defensive meaaurea are
those taken to provide against or to repel
attack. To defend a Piece or Pawn is to
protect or support it from or against an
Develop, To develop a Piece or Pawn
is to bring it from the comparatively pow-
erless and inactive position which it oc-
cupies at the heginning of the game to a
position which is more favorable for de-
fence or attack. To develop a game is to
bring all or nearly all of the Pieces and
Pawns into positions of defence or attack.
Development, The early positions of
the forces for defence or attack. In a
good or strong development, the forces co-
operate without much obstruction. In a
bad or weak development, there is need-
less obstruction and lack of co-operation
which frequently leads to a permanent dis-
Discovered Chech, An attack opened
upon the King by the removal of an inter-
vening Piece or Pai,vn. Por example: If
the Plaek King occupies KKt7, the White
TECHXIGAL TERMS ESPLAINED 35
BisLop occupies KKt5, and the White
Queen occupies KKtS, by rranoving the
£ishop the file is opened to the Queen
and the adverse King ii attacked. Mo^
ing the Bishop is said to " discover
Double Check. The simultaneous at-
tack, by two Pieces, upon the King.
Double Pawn. Two Pawns on the same
End Game. The stage at which tJie
forces of both sides have become so re-
duced that theoretical analysis ia. again
possible. A complete and perfect game of
Chess is divided into three parte:
(a) The Opening.
(b) The Middle Game.
(c) The End Game.
Each of these will be discussed at length
in later chapters.
En Passant. Taken in passing. If a
Pawn> in its first move, passes an adverse
Pawn the latter, in its next move only,
may capture it en passant as if it had
moved only one square. Thus if there ia
36 BOW TO PLAY CBESa
a White Fawn on Q5 and Black Fawna
on QB2 and K2, and either of the Black
Pawns moves two Bquares, to QB4 or K4,
it may be captured en paaaant bj the
En Prise. A Piece or Pawn is en prise
when it ia not fully defended and can bo
taken by the adversary. The term is used
with reference to everything but the King
and corresponds with dieck or checkmate.
A Piece or Pawn ia en prise, while the
King is in cheek.
Establish. A Piece or Pawn is estab-
lished when it occupies a position from
which it cannot be dislodged, and whence
it exercises a direct influence upon the op-
Exchange. To take force for force. In
it there may be equality or relative gain
or loss. ' To win an eiEchange is to capture
a Book in return for the loss of a Knight
or a Bishop. To lose an exchange is to
capture a Bishop or Knight in exchange
for a Rook.
False Move. A move that is contradic-
TEOBNIOAL TEBMB EXPLAINED 37
tory to the fundamental laws of Chesa.
Por example, to move a Bishop like a
King, or a Queen like a Knight, is a false
move and subjects the player to certain
Files, The rows of squares across the
board, from one player to another and dis-
tinguished from the Kanks which are the
horizontal rows of squares. The files are
named after the Pieces which occupy them
at the beginning of the game. Thus, from
"White's side beginning at the right, we
have the King's Rook's file, the King's
Knight's file, the King's Bishop's file and
the King's file, and so on across to the
Queen's Kook's file. (See Hanks).
Force. A term used to refer to a Piece
Fork. The attack by a Knight upon
two adverse Pieces or Pawns. It is also
used to describe the double attack of a
Queen, Bishop or Pawn. A common and
fatal example of a fork is found when the
White Knight occupies K3, and the Black
King occupies KE8, and the Black 9?J^fc
38 BOW TO PLAY CBE88
KKt5. The King, being in cheefe, must
move, which leaves the Queen at the mercj
of the adverse Knight.
Gambit. A voluntary surrender, op
proffer, of a Piece or Pawn by the first
player at the early part of the game, with
a view to subsequent advantage.
Oame. In addition to its ordinaiy
meaning the term has a technical mean-
ing which is explained under " Opening."
Interpose. To move a Piece or Pawn
between an attacked and attacking Piece
or Pawn. The term is frequently nsed in
connection with the King. When he is in
check, and a Piece or Pawn is placed be-
tween him and the attacking Piece or
Pawn, that Piece or Pawn is said to bo
Illegal Move, A move which, while
not in opposition to the fundamental laws
of movement, is still contradictory to the
ordinary rules of play, under the particu-
lar circumstances of the ease, such aa mov-
ing out of turn ; moving an adverse Piece
or Pawn ; castling to avoid check, or cast-
TECHVWAL TERMS EXPLAINED 39
ling after the King or Rook haa been
Isolated Pawn. A Pawn is said to be
isolated when there are no Pawns of the
same color on the adjoining files,
J'adoube. The I'rench for " I ad-
just " ; an espreasion that is used by a
player when he wishes to touch a man
that he does not intend to play or to take.
Without this declaration, the Piece or
Pawn touched must be moved or captured
in tho player's next turn if the conditions
Man. The generic name for any Chess
figure or force, including the Pieces and
Pawns. There are thirty-two CheBsmen,
sixteen Pieces and sixteen Pawns, as al-
Mate. See " Checkmate."
Mating Force. Any force that is su£B-
cient to mate the lone King; such as the
Queen or Rook.
Middle Oame, or Mid-Game. That
stage of a game when the Pieces and
Pawns are all, or nearly all, ready for
40 HOW TO PLAY CEE8B
action ; and said to begin when theoretical
analysis ends. Many of the most bril-
liantly played games are brou^t to a fin-
ish in the " Middle Game," before " End
Game " positions are reached.
Minor Piece. The Bishop or Knight
in contradistinction to the more valuable
mating forces such as the Queen or Rook.
Move. The person who begins the
game has the move ; a slight but uncertain
advantage. The term is also used with
reference to the person whose turn it is to
play, when a critical stage of the game is
reached, and the issues have been fairly
joined, or the contest is drawing to a close.
In such a case the person who plays next
has the move.
Notation. The syatwn or method of re-
cording the moves of a game.
Odds. An initiary advantage conceded
to a weaker player by a stronger one.
All important Chess clubs have a carefully
graded scale of odds, marking the classes
of players. A common gradation is given
in the following: —
TECSmCAL TERMS EZPL±IVED 41
(1) Pawn and move. (Wlen a Pawn
is conceded the KBP ia understood nnless
another is specified.) The player giving
the odds takes his EBP off the board and
his adversary has the first move.
(2) Pawn and two moves. The player
giving the odds takes off his KBP as be-
fore and his opponent has the first two
(5) Two minor Pieces.
Open File. A file having all of its
Open Game. A game in which the de-
velopment of the Pieces is accomplished
in advance of the Pawns. Moving the
KP to K4 as a first move on both sides
generally leads to an open game, but open
games depend upon the positions resulting
from the openings, irrespective of the first
Openings. The first few moves in a
game, or those by which the Pieces and
42 BOW TO PLAY CHESS
Pawns are liberated and arranged for ac-
tion against the enemy. Openings have
berai a study of all skilled Chesa players
and are a Buhject of keen controversy.
Those which are not given in standard
works on the subject, or are not clas8i<^
are called " Irregular Openings." Open-
ings are known as ; —
(1) Games, when neither player makes
any concession or offers his adversary any
(2) Qanibits, when the first player
voluntarily givee up some part of his
forces, generally a Pawn, for the sake of
obtaining an advantage in position.
(3) Counter-gambita, when the sacri-
fice is made by the second player.
(4) Defences, when the moves of the
second player give the game its distinctive
All recognized openings have some dia-
tinguisbing name, generally one that is
associated with some notable chess player
or one that is identical with that of the
inventor of the particular opening. Dif-
TECnmCAL TEB^S EXPLAINED 43
ferent openings will be discussed at length,
in a later chapter.
Opposition. The possession, by the
King, of a certain key square which forces
the adverse King to take up a less favor-
able position. If the White King stands
on K3, and the Black King on K8, then
the King who has the move loses the op-
position. The value of the opposition de-
pends upon the number, value and posi-
tion of the other Pieces and Pawns upon
the board, but the student can not be ex-
pected to understand it until he tas at-
tained some skill in playing the game.
Passed PoAvn. One that has no adverse
Pawn in front of it, either on its own file
or on one of the adjoining files.
Pawns. The name given to the in-
ferior Chessmen which stand on the sec-
ond rank at the beginning of the game.
Perpetual Check. A position in which
the King finds, that by avoiding one
check, he renders himself liable to another
— a series of checks from which he cannot
escape. For example ; If the Black King
44 BOW TO PLAY CHESS
occupies KESq., and the White Queen oc-
cupies K8, then the Black King is in per-
petual check, for be can onlj move one
Bquare at a time. To avoid the check he
mtist move to KR2 whereupon the White
Queen moves to KR5, again giving cheek.
The King then moves to KKtsq. and the
Queen again checks him from K8. Thus
the check continues to he perpetual -wher-
ever he moves. In all cases of perpetual
check the game is drawn.
Pieces. The name given to the Chess-
men of superior value which stand on the
first rank at the beginning of the game.
The term is also used by some authorities
to refer to all the chessmen, including the
Pin. A force is said to be pinned when
it cannot move without exposing a more
valuable Piece to attack from the enemy.
The term is generally used with reference
to a Piece or Pawn that is protecting a
King or Queen.
Pion Coiffe, or Marked Pawtu A de-
scription of odds that is rarely given, and
TECHNICAL TERMS EXPLAINED 45
only when one player is much more skilled
than the other. The superior player puts
a cap or ring on one of his Pawns, gener-
ally the KKtP, and undertakes to check-
mate the adverse King with that partic-
ular Pawn. He is not allowed to Queen
it, and if he loses it or checkmates with
any other Piece or Pawn he loses the
Position, The situation of the Pieces
and Pawns in general at any given stage
of the game. The relative situation of
the forces on either side, as between them-
selves, and as they are disposed with refer-
ence to the enemy. A player has a good
position when his forces have free scope
for action, and can be combined for de-
fence or attack. A player has a poor po-
sition when his Pieces and Pawns are
hampered and when they cannot support
one another for defence or attack.
Problem. An imaginary position in
which the correct line of play is concealed
and has to be discovered, under different
46 BOW TO PLAY CEESa
conditions. Problems may be divided
into two classes:
(1) Direct mate, in which White mov-
ing first has to force a checkmate in a
given number of moves, generally two,
three, or four.
(2) Suimate, in which White, playing
first, has to force Black to checkmate him
in a given number of moves.
Problems involving other conditions are
known as puzzles.
Protect. To guard or support a Piece
ly the interposition of another force be-
tween the Piece attacked and the attacking
Piece. A superior force ia protected or
covered from attack by an inferior one.
Queening a Pawn or Advancing a Pawn
to Queen. When a player has advanced a
Pawn to the eighth, or last, square of a
file, it assumes the rank and power of a
Queen or any other Piece, excepting a
King, that the player chooses, in which
case he is said to have Queened a Pawn.
Ranks. The horizontal rows of squares
across the board, from one side to the
TECHNICAL TERMS ESPLilNED 47
other. Thej are nmnbered from one (1)
to eight (8), each player counting from
hia own side of the board. (See File).
Sacrifice. The voluntary loss of a
Piece or Pawn in order to obtain a later
and more decisive advantage.
Sans Voir. See Blindfold Chess.
Smothered Mate. A checkmate some-
times given by the Eni^t when the ad-
verse King is hemmed in, or smothered,
by his own forces.
Stalemate. A position in which a
player cannot make any legal move, in con-
sequence of which the game is considered
drawn. For example; Suppose Black
still has a King and a Book on the board,
and White has a King and a Queen.
Black's King stands on QR and his Book
on QB2 ; while White's King is on QB3
and his Queen on QB4. It is White's
move, but if he takes his Queen from in
front of his King, he exposes it to check
from the adversary's Book. If he moves
the King, then hia Queen will be cap-
tured and the eame will have to be drawn.
48 BOW TO PLAT CHE88
and if he takes Black's Book with the
QuecD, then the adverse King will he
placed in a similar position, i. e., stale-
Support. A force is supported when it
is within the range of another of the same
color that would be in a position to cap-
ture it were it an enemy. An attacking
force is supported hy another Piece or
Pawn which commands the square or po-
Take. To capture.
Time. A condition of modem match
and tournament play which requires that
each player shall make a given number of
moves within a specified time; generally
from fifteen to twenty moves per hour.
To Play. To move. White's turn to
play means that it ia his turn to move.
Wings. The extreme flanks to right
and left in advance on the enemy's ground.
From White's side of the board the ex-
treme right is the King's Wing and the
extreme left, the Queen's Wing.
I. The board muBt be so placed between
the two plaj'ere, that each has a white
square at his right hand comer.
IL If a board ia incorrectly arranged
it may be adjusted, provided the error is
discovered before either of the players has
made more than three moves. When more
than three moves have been made on either
side, the players must continue the game
without correcting the position of the
IIL The chessmen must be of a pat-
tern in general use and any player may
object to playing with men of a foreign
design, provided the objection ia made be-
fore the first move. A game once begun
must be completed with the same set of
50 BOW TO PLAT CBESa
ly. If, at any stage of the game, either
player discovera that a Piece or Pawn has
been omitted or wrongly placed in setting
up the board, the game must be annulled,
no matter how far it may have progressed.
V. The choice of color with which each
person plays is decided by drawing lots;
and the person who draws the White men
is entitled to the first move unless other-
wise agreed. In a match or series of games
between the same players, each retains the
color which he drew for the first game,
but the first move of each successive game
alternates between them. If a game ia an-
nulled, however, the person who opened
that game has the privilege of making the
first move in the next game.
VII. When odds are given, the odds-
giver has the choice of men and the first
move in each game unless otherwise agreed.
VIII. The players move alternately,
one Piece or Pawn at a time, except in
castling; and in no case does a player
make two moves in succession, unless they
are given as odds.
CHE88 RULES 51
IX. If a player touch one of hia own
Pieces or Pawns, be must move it, if he
ran do so legally. If he cannot legally
move it, he must move his King. If a
player touch more than one of his own
Pieces or Pawns, he must move any one of
them which his opponent may select; if
none of them can be legally moved, he
must move his King.
If a player touch one of his opponents
Pieces or Pawns, he must take it if it can
be taken legally ; but if he cannot take it
legally, he must move his King, If a
player touch more than one of his oppo-
nent's Pieces or Pawns, he must take any
one of them which his opponent may se-
lect; or if none of them can be taken le-
gally, he must move his King. The tmtch-
ing of a force implies an intention to move
or take it, according as it is the player^s
own or his opponents; hut if a player
wishes to touch a Piece or Pawn for the
purpose of adjusting it on the board, etc.,
he must make his intention clear by say-
ing " J'adoube," or words to that effect.
52 BOW TO PLAT CBES8
before touching it. It must al»o be under-
stood, that in compelling a player to move
a particular Piece, the opponent can only
indicate the Piece to he moved, not the par-
ticular move it shall make.
X. A legal move is complete and irre-
vocable 1711611 the player making it has
ceased to touc^ the man moved, but as
long as bis band remains in contact with
it, he may move it to any square which it
commands and which he has not touched
with it during bis deliberation. If a play-
er after taking bold of a Piece or Pawn
touches with it all the squares whidi it
commands, he must move it to any one of
them which bis adversary may select
XI. A Pawn on reaching the eighth
rank must be queened or exchanged for
any other Piece, except a King, that the
player may select; and the move is not
complete until the player has made the
XII. Each player may castle once dur-
ing a game with either bis King's Hook or
CBE88 RVLE8 53
his Queen's Rook under tLe following con-
ditions : —
(a) If neither his King nor the Book
with which he intends to castle has been
(b) If the squares between the King
and Rook are unoccupied.
^ (c) If the King is not in check,
(d) If the King in moving does not
cros8 a square commanded by any opposing
A player must make evident hia inten-
tion to castle by either :
(a) Moving hia King first, or
(b) Moving King and Rook siraulta-
XIII. The capture of a Pawn en pas-
sant is a forced move if no other move is
XIV. If B. player makes a false or il-
legal move when it ia hia turn to play, he
must retract it and make a legal move or
move his King as his opponent may select.
If he captures a Piece or Pawn belonging
to his adversary in an illegal or false move,
64 EOW TO PLAT CBE8B
he must take that Piece or Pawn legally
or move his King as his adversary may
XV". Moving out of turn is an illegal
XVI. If a player, in attacking his ad-
versary, fails to call " Check," he cannot
exact any penalty if his opponent fails to
notice the check.
XVII. When check is given, any move
made hy the player, whose King is in
check, is illegal if it does not stop the
XVIII. If a false or illegal move is
found to have been made, in a game, all
Buhsequent moves must be retracted, and
a proper move made, after which the game
proceeds as if no error had been mad?.
But if the source of the manifest illegal
or false move cannot be traced, then the
game must he annulled.
XIX. In the case of a dispute between
the players, if the question is one of fact,
it must be referred to a bystander or um-
T)ire ; and if it is a question of law it must
CHESS RULES 55
be referred to any acknowledged author-
ity on the game. The decision, in either
case, must he final and accepted by hoth
XX. Bystanders or umpires are not al-
lowed to interfere in a game of Chess or
with the players, except under the follow-
ing conditions : —
(a) When appealed to to settle a ques-
tion of fact.
(b) When a Piece or Pawn has been
omitted or misplaced in setting up the
(c) When a false or ill^al move has
been made, but only after another move
has been made to allow the players time
to discover the error.
XXI. If a bystander interferes in a
gome, or gives advice to either player as
to his move, or cautions or encourages him
in any way by voice or gesture, the game
must be annulled,
XXII. If a player waives his right to
impose a penalty or agrees to depart from
the rules of the game, he cannot demand a
HOW TO PLAY CBESB
like coiicesaion from his adversary. A
player cannot impose a penalty after he
has made his own next move or touched a
Piece or Pawn in reply to the illegal or
false move of his adversary.
XXIII, When a Piece or Pawn touched
cannot be legally moved> and when the
King cannot be legally moved, no penalty
can be exacted.
XXIV. When the King is moved as a
penalty, he cannot be castled,
'XXV. When a game is played by time,
and when a player is considering what pen-
alty to inflict, the time shall be counted
against him and not against his adversary.
X^XVI. Each player must make a given
nimiber of moves (generally eighteen)
within an hour, which is arranged for at
the beginning of the game, and if a player
fails to make the given number of moves
within the specified time he forfeits the
XXVII. Each player must keep his ad-
versary's time, but be is not obliged to
CHEHIS KULUS 57
give his adversary any information con-
SXVIII. A player loses a game : —
(a) When a dispute arises and lie re-
fuses to accept the opinion of a bystander
or umpire, or that of a recognized author-
(b) When he ceases to play and fails to
resume within a reasonable time,
(e) When he wilfully disarranges the
men or upsets the board.
XXIX. A player may claim a draw : —
(a) When the same move, or series of
moves, has been repeated three times.
(b) When the same position has oe-
curred three times, it being the same play-
er's turn to move each time.
(c) When, after fifty moves, no Piece
or Pawn has been captured by either side.
KCLES WHEIIT OduS ABB GiVE;IT.
XXX. The player giving odds is en-
titled to the choice of color and to the first
move unless otherwise agreed.
58 BOW TO FLAT CHESS
XXXL When a Pawn is given eb odds
it is to be the King's Bishop's Pawn.
SXXII. The player receiving the
odds of a move or moves must not play
any Piece or Pawn beyond the fourth
rank, or beyond the middle of the board,
before his adversary has made a move.
XXXIII. A player giving the odds of
the exchange may remove whichever Eook
he may select, and he may also call upon
his opponent to remove either Knight or
XXXIV. A player receiving two or
more moves as odds must make those moves
at once and they are to be counted collec-
tively as if they were his first move.
XXXV. A player giving a Knight or
Eook, or two minor Pieces, as odds, may
remove whichever Knight or Book or
minor Pieces he may choose.
XXXVI. A player giving a Rook as
odds cannot castle on the side from which
the Kook was taken.
XXXVII. When a player undertakes
CBE8B BVLBS 59
to mate with a particular Pawn, he may
not Queen it.
2XXVIII. When a player undertakes
to mate on a particular square, his adver-
Bary^B King must be on the square in ques-
tion when it is mated.
XXXIX If a player undertakes to
win a game in a particular way, he is to be
adjudged the loser if he wins it in any
other way, or if the game is drawn.
(The rules for ordinary play apply when
odds are given unless they are oiviously
Rules fob Plat by CoNBtiLTATioK.
XL. Eadi player is hound hy the move
communicated to the adversary, whether
such move be declared by word of mouth,
in writing, or be made on the adversary's
SIX If the move communicated dif-
fer from that made on the player's own
board, the latter must be altered.
XLIL If a move, as communicated,
admit of more than one interpretation, the
60 ROW TO PLA.T CSE8B
adversary may adopt whichever interpreta-
tion he chooses. He muat, however, hefore
making hia mov^ announce which inter-
pretation he adopts, otherwise the move is
to be interpreted according to the inten-
tion of the player making it.
XLIII. A player moving more than one
man (except in castling) or moving a man
when it is not his turn to play, shall for<
feit the game.
XLIV. If either player permit a by-
stander to take part in a consultation game,
the adversary may claim a win.
XLV. If any bystander interfere by
sign, word, or gesture, in a consultation
game, such game shall be null and void.
(The rules of ordinary play also apply
to consultation play unless obviously inap-
ItxiI.BS FOB PlAT BT CoBBESFONDENdE.
XLVI. An umpire or referee shall be
appointed whose decision shall be final
upon all questions submitted to him.
XLVII. A move is final and cannot be
CHESS RULES 61
recalled when dispatched hy the medium
agreed upon before the b^uming of the
game. If it is a false or illegal move, the
person making it is subject to the same
penalties that he would be subjected to
were he playing over the board.
XLYIII. If a move is sent in auch a
way that it admits of more than one in-
terpretation, the adversary may interpret
it to suit himself. When sending hia own
move in return, however, he must atat©
which interpretation he used, otherwise
the move must be made according to the
intention of the sender.
XLIX. A player is not obliged to send
more than one move at a time^ and if he
does he must abide by those moves if they
are legal, and if not he must pay the pen-
alties for false or illegal moves.
I. When no penalty for delay has been
agreed upon, the person who fails to send
his move on or before the appointed time
forfeits the game.
LI. If a player accepts assistance other
than that which may have been agreed
62 BOW TO PLAY CBESa
upon at the beginning of the game, he
loses the game.
LIT, If a player sends an unintelligible
move, he ie subject to the same penalty that
he would have to pay if he did not send
any move at all; but the opponrat must
announce to the umpire that the move in
question is not intelli^ble.
(The rules for ordinary play also apply
to play hy correspondence unless obviously
SUOOSSTIOKS FOB DEOmilEBS
When the banner is familiar with the
rules of ChesB, with the moves of the vari-
ous Pieces and Fawns, and understands
the meaning of the technical terms used
in playing the game, he is ready to put
into practice what he has learned. But
before banning the first game, there are
a few general suggestiona which he will
find helpful until he has acquired suffi-
cient skill to develop a system of play for
himself. In Chess, as in everything else,
there are exceptions where hard and fast
rules cannot always he followed.
Familiabitt with Technioal Terms.
Experienced pTayera of all games use
technical terms with a facility that is awe-
inspiring to the beginner; and his ignor-
64 EOW TO PLAT CBE88
ance of their meanings often causes him
luch embarrassment, to say nothing of
;)oor playing. For this reason the student
should become thoroughly familiar with
:he language of Chess, studying the defini-
ions of the technical terms and illustrat-
ing the positions on the Chessboard.
The use of the board in studying the
:erm8 cannot be too strongly urged, for
only in this way can a player recognize
character of the moves when he puts
his study into practice. Then when he is
a spectator of a game played by persona
of experience — and much can be learned
by observation — he will be familiar with
the technical terms which apply to the
various positions resulting from tho
P1.AYING WITH ElTHEB COLOB.
The student must learn to play with
both the White and the Black men, thus
being- able to play a game of defence or at-
tack. In most books on the subject of
Chess, it is generally understood that the
aVOGEBTIONS FOR BEQiyHERS 65
student plays with the White men, but this
is a mistake, for when he comeB to lay
aside bis textbook and pla; with someone
else, he may draw the Black men which
puts him at a disadvantage, and he is like-
ly to make moves that are favorable to his
opponent with the idea that the White men
must win. He is, also, liable to move a
White man by mistake and then he must
pay the penalty of a false move. He will
find it helpful to substitute Black men for
White men in illustrative moves, and fig-
ure out for himself to which square ft
Black Piece or Pawn should move figuring
from Black's side.
Value of Peactichsg Ohb Game.
Until a person has become a really sci-
entific Chesa player, he cannot be expected
to know all the different games; and as a
little knowledge on many subjects is dan-
gerous, the student will find it very help-
ful to play one game over and over, pref-
erably, of course, some match or tourna-
ment game, nntil he is familiar withevery
66 BOW TO PLAY CBEBB
move and with the reasoning that prompt-
ed it In this counection, he will do well
to try varying the moves and seeing the
results, as it will help him to understand
why the particular moves made hy the orig-
inal players were the only scientific ones
to make nnder the circumstances.
The student, when playing with others,
should study a game of his own and play
it over and over until he has corrected all
of the weaknesses in his methods of attack
and defence ; and he should study out for
himself how to vary his system of play to
meet and conquer his opponent For only
in this way will he he able to cope with
unexpected positions upon the Chess-
board. It is very well to follow the rules
and systems of scientific players, but if
the student's opponent does not follow the
same system and make the correct moves
in return, the student's knowledge will be
of little avail and luck may win for the
igDorant player an advantage that rightly
belonged to the one who was familiar with
the science of the game, but who failed to
BVGoesTioys for BminnEBa 67
vary his general Bystem of plaj to meet
unexpected situations. Tlie game of Chess,
however, is like a battle and the general
who changes his tactics too often suffers in
consequence. The object of the game is,
of course to checkmate the King, and be-
fore the first move, the player should de-
termine in bis own mind how be is going
to do it and then develop the fighting qual-
ities of his men accordingly. Only in this
way can the beginner ever expect to play
8 really scientific game. It is fatal to move
a man without having aome object in view,
and unless the other moves follow it up,
any strength in position that was gained
by that move is of no avail
Playing bt Timb^
In the early days of Chess-playing, peo-
ple used to take literally weeks in which
to make a single move, as they wished to
study every possible situation which might
develop therefrom. The Chessboard would
become grey with duct and all interest, as
far as the spectators were concerned, would
68 BOW TO PLAY CBE88
be gone. To-day, conditions have changed
and now there is a rule that each player
must make a given number of moves with-
in a certain period, and if a player fails to
do this he forfeits the game. For this rea-
son, the student should learn, from the
very beginning, to think quickly and be
ready to make his move when his turn
comes. Quick playing sustains the inter-
est of the game and adds to the pleasure of
the players, as well as to that of the spec-
In Chess Clubs and in match and tour-
nament games, a system of clocks or
watches is used so that the length of time
it takes each player to make a move can
be recorded, just as time is taken in races
and other contests of skill and speed. When
a beginner is hurried, however, he becomes
nervous and makes unnecessary mistakes;
and to avoid this, he should learn to play
by time and then he will not be embar-
rassed by keeping his opponent waiting for
him to make his movci.
bvqgbbtwsb for beoiunerb 69
Developing the Game.
In developing a game of Cbeaa, the be-
ginner should remember this maxim:
Move no Piece or Pawn twice, until each
haa been moved once. By following this
principle none of the forces will be need-
lessly exposed to attack from the enemy,
for it is true of Chessmen that divided
they fall, and united they stand. The
student should, also, develop his game on
both wings — that la on the King's side
and on the Queen's side — before begin-
ning an attack. As the student progresaea
he will learn that there are many Chess
openings and that each develops a certain
line of play, which he must follow up;
otherwise, his study of the subject is of
no avail for the object of an opening is
to lead up to a certain line of play, for de-
fence or attack.
The Value of the Pieces.
T%e King. As the King is of greatest
importance, the student should consider
70 BOW TO PLAY CEEB8
him firet, and before beginning to play de-
termine how he is to be handled. For-
merly, it was the custom for skilled players
to keep this Eoyal Force in a comer out
of harm's way, but the modem tendency is
to develop him as a fighting Piece and
bring him into the field. The b^inner
must remember that the King cannot be
castled after he has been moved and that it
is advantageous to retain the privilege of
castling as long as possible, if it does not
interfere with the development of the
WhAi attack is made on the Queen's
wing, it is well to castle with the King's
Kook and vice versa. Ordinarily, the King
is safest in his own file or in the Queen's
file, for then he cannot be driven into a
comer from which he has no means of es-
The Queen, After the King, the Queen
is next in importance; and aa the student
has already learned, she commands more
squares than any of the other Pieces. By
comparing her strength with that of the
avaaEBTiONB fob bbginnbrb 7X
other Pieces, the Btudent Trill see that ehe
is about double the value of a Kook, ex-
cept in end-game positions when two Rooka
eo^)perating could accomplish more than a
Qneen. An adrerse Book on the aame
rank or file as the Queen is very dangero\i8>
no matter how many Pieces and Fawns
may come between, and the player should
guard against it by capturing the adverse
Book, if it can be done without sacrifice,
or by moving the Queen into a safer posi-
The Book. The Book is a mating force
like the Queen, and two Books co-operat-
ing are etjual iu value to three minor
Pieces. Because of the number of squares
which the Books command, they are of
greatest value in end game positions, when
the board ia comparatively clear and the
ranks and 0es are open. The beginner,
however, must not leave the development
of his Books until too late in the game, for
if he does he will find himself with bad
positions which it is too late to remedy.
They must not be moved, though, until the
72 EOW TO PLAT CEE88
player has determmed whether it is to bifl
advantage to castle ; and if his decision 19
in the affirmative, he must decide whether
he will castle with the King's Book or
with the Queen's Ibxik, before either has
The Bishop. The Bish(^ and the
Knight are of about equal value, though
in the middle game, the latter has the ad-
vantage. In the end game, however, the
Knight is at a disadvantage if there are
no other Pieces to support him, because of
the character of his move. In this case,
two Bishops can accomplish more than two
Knights or a Knight and a Bishop. Bish-
ops are particularly strong when command-
ing long diagonals and should be devel-
oped early in the game.
The Knight. This Piece is equal in
value to three Pawns and is the best Piece
with which to begin an attack, as his move
is not hampered by intervening forces, or
a crowded board. Two Knights co-oper-
ate most successfully when not protecting
each other. To avoid attack from a Knight,
sueaEBTioss for BEOINNERS 73
the player should move the Piece threat-
ened to the square next but one in the
Bame diagonal as that in which the Knight
atanda. He cannot then attack for three
moves. The player who castles with his
King's Eook must look out for an adverse
Knight on his KB5.
The Pavm. The Pawn is of less value
than any of the other Chessmen and can-
not take a very prominent part in the game
when isolated. His greatest value is real-
ized, however, when he forms part of a
diagonal ; and diagonals of pawns are most
efiEective when inclining toward the center
of the hoard, and not toward the wings.
As Pawns move only one square at a time,
excepting in the first move, their progress
is slow, but if developed together it is pos-
sible for one or more of them to reach the
eighth rank and be Queened. For this
reason, they should not be needlessly sacri-
ficed. Only skillful players fully appre-
ciate what can be done with them, and use
them to the best advantage. In the open-
ing or middle game, Pawns are more easily
74 BOW TO PLAT CBE83
supported ou Kl or Q4, than when fur-
ther advanced. Pawns on these squares
should be maintained abreast as long as
possible ; for if one is advanced, the posi-
tion of the other ia weakened. The stud-
ent will find it beneficial to study end
games in which Pawns take part in the
checkmate, and also Pawn moves in gen-
eral throughoat the game.
Studying the Board.
It is of great importance that the be-
ginner acquires a clear idea of the appear-
ance of the board so that be can see it in
his " Mind's Eye," when it ia not really
before him. He should be able to tell at
once what squares are commanded by a
certain Piece in a ^ven position, and he
should also be able to play on boards with
squares of other color combinations dian
the one with which he is familar, such as
red and white, black and white, black and
yellow, brown and yellow, etc. He must
also accustom himself to play with squares
of a difFN*ent size, though when possible,
avaansTioNB for beqisnerb 7ti
be should always use a board that has
squares measuring 2 by 2, or 2^/^ by 2^
inches in size. Chessmen of the Staun-
ton pattern are preferable, and they
should always be loaded so as not to upset
8Y8TEU8 OP NOTATIOIT
Notation is the method or eyatem by
which the various moves or plays in a game
of Chess are recorded. There are two sys-
tems in general use ; and the student should
become familiar with them both. The first
and most important is the English, or
Philidor's Notation, and the second is the
German Notation. ■ The former system is
used in all of the Latin and English speak-
ing countries, while the latter is used in
Germany and in the countries of the
In recording the moves of a game by
the English system of notation it is neces-
sary to indicate four things:— -
(1) The color of the man moved.
8YBTEM8 OF HOTATJOS 77
(2) The name of the man moved.
(3) The square to which the move has
(4) The number of the move or turn.
The student has already learned the
names of the Pieces and Pawns and the
names of the squares. He also knows that
they are referred to 1^ their initial let-
ters, as for example XB for King's Bishop,
and QKt5 for Queen's Ejiight's fifth
square, so he has now only to learn the
ahbreviations and signs and the way that
the moves are arranged to indicate the
color of the man played, and the number
of the turn when the move was made.
For example : If the student wishes to
record that in the first turn of each side
White moved his King's Pawn to his
King's fourth square, and Black moved
his Queen's Knight to his Queen's Bishop's
third square he could write it in the form
of two columns, with the name of each
color at the head thus: —
78 HOW TO PLAY CRE8B
The Btudent will note that White 13
placed in the first column aa it is generally
understood to play first, and that the rnim-
her of the move ia also placed hefore
White's move, it being unnecessary to re-
peat it before Black's move as Black's
move, always following White's, would
have the same number. For further abbre-
viation the dash ( — ) is used in place of
the word " to." If the Piece or Pawn
moved had captured an adverse Piece or
Pawn, the name of the force moved and
the name of the force captured would be
given, but instead of using the word
" take," or " capture " a multiplication
sign ( X ) is used. Thus if a Queen takes
a Bishop it would be recorded QXB.
Prequently, in notation, it ia not essen-
tial to indicate whether it is a Piece be-
longing to the King or to the Queen that
has been moved, for it rarely happens
that the player has the option of moving a
Queen's Bishop or a King's Bishop, etc
The Pawns are also designated only by the
initial P. The student will also observe
BTaTEMS OF SOTATIOX 79
that it is not alwajs essential to indicate
in the ease of a Queen's move to a Knight's
square whether it is the QKt. or the KKt,
as it is seldom that the plajer would have
the choice of moves. Sometimes, for the
sake of hrevity, even the dash ( — ) which
indicates " to " is omitted and the move
recorded PK4. In analytical works,
even more concise arrangements of the
moves are used, than that of arranging
them in columns with White's moves on
one sid^ and Black's on the other. The
student will find them written in the form
of fractions, with White's move as the
numerator, ahove the line, and Black's
move as the denominator, helow the Una
Thus: QKt — QB3
The number of the move must always
be placed before it, parallel with the line
which divides the White move from
the Black move. In notes or annotations
to a game, the moves are written as a se-
ries with s semi-colon to separate White's
move from that of Black. White's move
80 HOW TO PLAY CBE8B
lieiag placed first, thus: (1) P— K4; P—
Q4, indicates that in the first more of the
game White moved his Pawn to his King's
fourth square, and Black moved his Pawn
to his Queen's fourth square.
Certain technical terms are also abbre-
viated in the English system of notation.
Those essential for the student to know
Ch. for Check. When the Piece or
Pawn moved gives cheek.
Dia. ch. for Discovered Check. When
the Piece or Pawn moved discovers check.
E. P. for En Passant. When the Pawn
captures en passant.
Mate for Checkmate. When the Piece
or Pawn checkmates.
O'O for Castling. When the player
castles with his King's Book.
0-0-0 for Castling. When the player"
castles with his Queen's Kook.
f after a move indicates that it is a
poor or inferior play.
/ after a move indicates that it is a
good or scientific plav.
systems of notation 81
Before taking up the study of German
notation, the student must make a careful
I ( h
examination of diaqbam z, T?hidi shows
him how the squares on a
82 BOW TO PLAY CHESS
Chessboard are marked off. It will be
noted that they are indicated in a different
■way from the English system. The ranks
are numbered from 1 to 8, from White's
side only and the files are lettered with
the first eight letters of the alphabet, a, b,
c, d, e, f, g, h, beginning at White's left
For example: White's KB3, by the
English system of notation is f3 by the
German method ; while KB3, from Black's
side is f6. From this, it will be seen that
each square has a letter and a number,
and the letter is always given first
In recording a move by the German sys-
tem of notation, the initial letter of the
Chessman is given, then the square on
which it stands, and finally the square to
which it is moved. The omiaaion of the ini-
tial letter shows that the move is made by
a Pawn. A capture is indicated by a colon
(:), placed fifter the move; a check is in-
dicated by a dagger (f), placed after the
move, and a capture and check is indicated
by a douhledagger (:}:), placed after the
BTSTEM8 OF NOTATION 83
move. Castling is always indicated by the
signs, 0-0, or 0-0-0, as already explained
in the English system of notation.
For example, the moves used to illua-
trate the English system would be recorded
by the German system thus : —
(1) e2— «4. EtbS— i;a
The moves are also frequently written
in a line or as fractions as shown in the
The German System of Notation ia
sometimes abbreviated by: —
(1) The omission of the dash, the move
being written e2e4.
(2) By the omission of the initial let-
ter of the Piece moved when it is evident
that it could not be a Pawn.
(3) By the omission of the square from
which the Piece or Pawn was moved.
FoREioiT Names of the Chessmen.
In every country, where Chess ia played,
the Pieces are referred to by their initial
84 HOW TO PLAY C
Rubs La n.
SYSTEMS OF NOTATION 85
letters, and as the student may have occa-
sion to study the games played by persons
of skill in foreign countries, a table is
given on page 84, so that the student may
familiarize himself with the names of the
Chessmen in the languages of the princi-
pal countries of Europe.
Tbe Btudent has now reached a point in
the study of Chess, when he is ready to
play his first game, as he is familiar ■with
the rules of play, and with the moves of
the Pieces and Pawns. It is well, how-
ever, for him to follow in the footsteps of
experienced players; and as a practice
game, he should Btudy the following game
which was played by correspondence be-
tween two well known American Chess
The be^nner should have his board be-
fore him with the men set up in position
as shown in diaobau i. He should
then follow the moves of each play, so that
he will understand them, and study the
explanations so that he will know why
each move was made. The game is called
the Steinitz Gambit because of the name
of the "inn who invented the opening
The movea are notated as foUowB:
!. P— K4.
Kt— Q B3.
3. P— B4. '
4. P— Q*.
6. K— K2.
B— KKt6 (ch.).
7. Kt— B3.
B— Q B4.
9. PXP (ch.>.
12. B— Q2.
R— Ksq. (ck).
13. K-Q Bq.
14. K-B eq.
The student will note that the game was
played in fifteen moves on each side and
that at White's sixteenth move, he resigns
88 BOW TO PLAY CSE8B
the game to Black, giving up any further
attempt to win it
In etudying and following the moves,
the student must be careful to reckon
White's moves from his aide of the hoard,
and Black's moves from his side, other-
wise he will make mistakes.
(1) White's first move is P— K4, and
the student sees, at once, that the move is
made with the EF as no other Pawn could
be moved into that file. As this is the
first move of the Pawn it can move two
squares at a time. The advantage of this
move is to make an opening for White's
Eing, Queen and King's Bishop if he d&-
sires to pl&y them in future turns.
In Black's first turn, he makes the same
move, and, by following the two plays on
the board, the student will see that the
two Pawns occupy adjoining squares in
the same file. Another advantage in this
play, as an opening move, is the opportun-
ity it offers a player for gaining the center
PRACTICE GAME 89
of the boaidj but this will be clearer to the
student aa the game progresses.
(2) In White's second turn, he moves
a Kt. to QB3 and the student sees at once
that it is the QKt. that he has moved, as
the KKt could not be moved to that square
in his first move.
Black follows with a similar move to
that of White, and from. 4lie positions that
the two Knights occupy npon the board, it
will be seen that each protects his own
Pawn or c<HmQand9 the square occupied
by his Pawn.
„ P— B4
(3) White's third move is to place his
Bishop's Pawn on his Bishop's fourth
square, and as his Queen's Knight occu-
pies his Q^ it is evid«it that the move
is made with the KBP. The student will
see that this Pawn is now in a position to
be captured by Black's KP, but this offei>
ing of a Pawn on White's part will gain
for him a later advantage.
90 BOW TO FLAY CBES8
In Black's third move, he captures the
Pawn that White has just played and re-
moves it from the hoard. He has also
moved hia own Pawn from the middle of
the hoard which better enables White to
form 8 center which was the advantage he
hoped to gain when he offered Black the
Pawn. Black, however, has retained the
advantage of force having one more Pawn
than his adversary and if he can keep it
he may eventually win the game.
'q— Re (ch.)
(4) White, having enticed Black's
Pawn from the center, proceeds to occupy
it himself by moving his QP to Q4. Thia
square, however, is commanded by the
Black Knight, hut if he captured the
White Pawn he would place himself on a
square commanded by the White Queen.
This move constitutes the Steinmetz Gam-
hit and all games of that name must fol-
low the moves as recorded up to thia
In Black's fourth move, he brings out
PRACTICE OAME 91
his Queen and movea her along the diag-
onal that ends on E5. This, of course, can
onl; be the KR5 aa the Queen from her
original position would have to follow
the diagonal terminating in QE4 if she
played into a square on her own aide of
the board. The student will see that whrai
the Black Queen occupies 1R5, she gives
check to the White King aa there are no
Pieces or Pawns interposed between them.
(5) Aa check has been given to White*B
King, the only move he can le^timately
make is one to avoid the check. As the
student haa already learned there are three
ways of accomplishing this: (1) By cap-
turing the cheeking force; (2) By inter-
poaing another Piece or Pawn; (3) By
moving the King. The atudeut will see
that there is only one play open to White
and that is to move the King to K2 ; for
if a Piece or Pawn were interpoaed it
would be captured in the Black Queen's
next move when she would again give
02 BOW TO PLAY CHESS
check, and, as tlie Book's Fawn is in the
way, the Queen cannot he captured hy
the Rook. By moving the King, however.
White cannot castle.
For Black's fifth move, he takes hia QP
which has not yet been moved and places
it on Q4. This opens the diagonal for
the Queen's Bishop and for the King's
Bishop. Had Black only moved his Fawn
to Q3, it would have freed his QB but
it would have interfered with the long
diagonal commanded by the KB. It is evi-
dent from this that Black intends to move
his QB to KKt5 and give check with it so
White should look out for him. (See
B— Kte (ch.)
(6) White, however, does not notice
that Black can give check in the next move
but captures his adversary's Pawn with
his own Pawn that stands on K4. The
forces of the two players are now equal
and the advantage gained by White is to
place his Pawn on Q5 where it commands
the square occupied by the Black Knight
Black now takes the advantage gained
by hie last move and gives check with hia
Position After Black's Fifth Uov«.
QB by moving it to Kt5, -where it com-
mands the square occupied by the White
King. D, -,.... .,Googic
94 EOW TO PLAY CBUSS
(7) Again, White's only I^al move is
to avoid the check, but of the three ways
to do it, interposing another force between
the King and the attacking man is the
best play, so he moves his Enight to B3.
The student sees at once that the KKt. is
the only one that can be moved into that
square as tJie QKt. is out in the middle of
the board. The Enight ie now pinned as
it protects the King from the Black Bish-
op, otherwise it would be in a position to
capture the Black Queen.
Black, in his seventh move, castles with
his Queen's Kodc as the squares on that
side of the board are vacant. In order
to do this, he moves the Book to Qsq. and
then moves the King to the QBsq. on the
other side of the Rook. Although Black
has left his Kni^t en pris, castling is
his correct play for it enables him to de-
velop his Bode which is a more powerful
Piece than the Knight, and as the White
King stands on an open file, Black, in one
PRACTICE CAME 95
more move, can give check which will force
White to move his King. The Rook will
then command the open file and with his
Queen, Elack will have a very strong posi-
(8) White now captures the Black
IKnight with his Pawn, Although hia
Pawn is threatened, he is willing to face
the danger in having won a Piece from hia
For Black's eighth move, he plays his
KB to his QB4r : the student sees, at once,
that it is only the KB that could make this
move for the QB stands on KKt5. This
move places the Bishop en pris, but if
White takes him in the next move, he
leaves his Queen's file open to the adverse
Rook which is likely to capture the Queen
in his next tnm.
' K— KtBq.
(9) White takes the Pawn that threat-
ened him and also gives check which forces
Black to protect his King. .o,i;;i>
96 BOW TO PLAY CHESa
Black's only legal move is to avoid check
by protecting his King and of the three
ways, two are open to him, i.e., capturing
the attacking Pawn, and moving the King.
The latter play is preferable and his King
commands two squares ; Q2 and Ktsq. If
the former move were made, White would
take the KB with his Pawn, discovering
check with the Queen and again Black
would have to make a move to avoid the
check. Thus, Black's correct move is K —
(10) White captures the adverse Bish-
op with hia Pawn, but he leaves the file
open to the Black Rook who can capture
the Queen. As White has now taken four
adverse forces this play of hia, ordinarily,
would not have been a bad move, but as a
matter of fact it loses the game for him.
The student should note the question mark
( ?) after the notation of White's play.
White can also take the Book which cap-
tures the Queen with his Knight if Black
PRACTICE GAME 97
takes advantage of the open file. Stein-
itz^ in bis notes to this game, indicates
Kt. — Kt5 as the correct move, for then the
Knight can protect the Queen's Pawn.
Black, instead of taking the adverse
Queen -with his Kook, moves his Knight
to B3, which is a very skilful move as the
King's and Queen's files are both open and
if he can succeed in posting his Hooks on
the Qaq. and the Ksq. he will practically
have control of the board. As one Rook
already occupies the Qsq. he has only to
move the KK to Qsq. in his next move
to give check with it. He can also give
check hy moving his QE to Ksq., and as
White cannot move his King into any
square that is not commanded by an ad-
verse force, and as he cannot capture the
attacking force, he will have to interpose,
but the only men he could interpose could
be captured by Black, so in his eleventh
move he has to guard against this check
before it is given.
98 EOW TO PLAT CBESB
(11) White's Queen now tabes advan-
tage of the open file and captures the
Queen's Rook, at the same time giving
Ab White has given check, Black must
avoid it and there are two things for him
to do; move the King ot take the attack-
ing force. The latter, of course, is the
hettet play, as the Queen, if left on the
board, could again give check.
At this point in the game, the student
should study the positions of the White
men and of the Black, and he will see that
it is quality of position rather than quan-
tity of men that gives Black the advan-
tage. Black has lost a number of his men
but the others are so well developed that
they have far more strength than White's
which are either pinned in or undeveloped.
White's two Hooks and his King's Bishop
are shut in by their Pawns and his King's
Knight is pinned to protect the King from
the adverse Bishop.
K— Ksq (ch.)
PRACTICE GAME 99
(12) White might move MaQB to KB4
and capture the Black Pa\vn but hia poai-
tion is too critical and it ia wiser for him
to bring his strength nearer the King so
that if he is attacked, he can move into
Qsq. and be protected. Tor this reason,
the best move is QB — Q2. Another reason
for this move is to clear the first rank for
the Queen's Koofc.
Black now moves his remaining Book
to Ksq. and gives check.
(13) White must do something to avoid
the check and it has already been shown
how difBcult it is for him to interpose. Of
the five squares which he commands, three
are commanded by adverse forces; Ksq.,
KB2, K3, therefore, his only moves are
to Q3 or Qsq. The latter is the correct
play, as it enables him to get his King into
cover, opens the diagonal for the King's
Bishop, and opens the way for the King's
Eook after the KB has been moved.
For Black's thirteenth move he puts his
100 BOW TO PLAT CBE88
Queen on E7, which is preparatory to tak-
ing the adverse KKt. with his Bishop. If
White then take the Bishop with hJs KtP
the Queen will take the Pawn, giving
check and attacking the White King's
Rook at the same time. White can see
the object of Black's play so in his next
move he must try to prevent it. (See
DIAQBAM XI v).
(14) White moves his King to Bsq.
■which puts him more under cover though
it blocks his QR. lie gains an advantage, ^
however, for by moving from the diagonal
commanded by the adverse QB, his own
Knight is unpinned and can be moved if
Black takes the Knight with his Bishop,
though he exposes his Bishop to capture in
WTiite's next move, but as the two pieces
are of about equal value, the exchange is
PRACTIGf!,GAiIS ' ' ' ' 101
(15) White tates-'-the Bhck p^/^i&'' '
his KtP, making' an even exchange for
the losa of his Knight.
FoBition After Black's Thirteenth Move.
Black haa so many moves that, to an in-
experienced player, it is doubtful which
one is best to make. Capturing the KJiR.
-fe;raa,tS)Bi»ctipiaj; .as it puts the Queen in
a position to take ttree" of White's forces :
QKt, KB, and KK, Of the three, the KB
is protected by the KR and the QKt. is
protected hy the QKt.P and the QE so
they are both safe. The KR is not pro-
tected, nor is the pawn on QKt7 so White
must take steps to protect the more valua-
ble, i.e., tlie KR.
(16) White's Pieces and Pawna are
now in such a poor position that even if
he did try to protect his King's Kook, he
would gain so little that he could not pos-
sibly hope to win the game and, in conse-
quence of this, he resigns and Black scores
the game as won.
The student should notice that in this
game, in spite of the opening moves on
White's part, he has been on the defensive
side all the time. Black, on the contrary,
has made the attack with such success that
his adversary resigned without even wait-
ing for the checkmate.
The opening moves in a game of Chess
are of particular importance for it is in
them that the strategy of the game is most
clearly distinguished from mere Chess
tactics. Each opening is intended to de-
velop a certain theory or course of play,
and the skill of a Chess player is indicated
l^ his first moves, as thej are made of his
own free will and not because his adver-
sary forces him to take an aggressive or
defensive position, as is often the case in
the later development of the game. For
^is reason, Chees openings have been a
study of profound interest to Chess play-
ers all over the world wherever the game
is played, and the principal or regular
openings are named after the Piece or
Pawn which determines their character,
104 BOW TO FLAT CHESS
the peraons who invented them, or the
countries where they were ori^nally
It is evident to the student, therefore,
how important it is for him to be familiar
with the preliminary moves in a game of
Chess, and he must give careful attention
to the study of this chapter; following
each play on his own board so that it will
he perfectly clear to him and easy to re-
member, for every successful Ohess player
should know the openings by name when
he has oecasion to refer to them.
The student has already learned that
some openings are regular and some irreg-
ular, but it is only necessary for him to
become familiar with the former until he
has had much experience in practical play.
The four most generally practiced open-
ings are made on the King's side of the
board, and the student should become
thoroughly familiar with them.
The first opening is called the king's
knight's opening. Each player, in
turn, moves his KP to K4 and then tho
CBE8S oPEmum 105
first player moves his Kt to bis KB3.
The second opening is called the
kiitg'8 bishop's openisg. Each player
in turn, moves hia KP to hia K4 and then
the first player moves his E3 along the
diagonal to QB4,
The third opening ia called the
queen's bishop's pawn's opening.
Each player, in turn, moves his KP to
K4 and then the first player moves his
QBP to QB3.
The fourth opening is called the
king's gambit. The student will re-
member that a gambit means the sacrifice
of a Piece or Pawn for the sake of an ad-
vantage that is to be gained later by the
first player. Each player, in turn, moves
his KP to K4 and then the first player
moves his KEP to KB4, where it is in a
position to be captured by the adverse
The student will note that in each of
these openings, the first move of each
player is identical, i.e., the KP to K4.
This opening move clears the way for the
106 BOW TO FLAY CBESa
King, the Queen, and the King's Bishop,
if the player cares to develop them. Each
of these openings has a number of raria-
tions in the plays which follow, and these
variations are recognized and given spe-
cific names, with which the student must
The King's Kkioht's Opbitinq.
The most important, and hence to be
considered first, is the King's Kni^t's
Opffliing which has ten recognized varia-
tions. In notating them, it will be under-
stood that White plays first and his moves
will be recorded in the first column. Un-
fortunately, lack of space prevents re-
cording games that illustrate the develop-
ment of these variations, but there are so
many excellent works on the subject that
the student who wishes to go into them
more deeply will find ample material, for
The ten variations under the King's
Knight's Opening are as follows :-:—
CSESS 0PES1N08 107
The Damianc Qamiit. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt— KB3 P— KB3
FMlidor'a Defmte, —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 P— Q3
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— KB3
(The student will note in thia defense that each
Pawn is protected by his Knight as each KnigM
cominands the square occupied by bis own
The Counter Qambil in the Knight'a Opening. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 P— KB4
(Tbe student will note that the two Blade
Pawns occupy squares commanded by White's
forces. This constitutes the counter gambit the
aacriftce of a. force being made by the second
The Oiaoeo Piano. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— B3 Kt.— QB3
3. KB— QB4
Captain Evans'g Qambit. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— Kit* Kt.— QB3
3. KB— QB4 KB— QB4
4. P— qKt.4
108 now TO PLAY CEESa
The TicQ Knigkta' Defense. —
i. P— K4 P— K4
2. Et— KB3 Kt—QfiS
3. KB— QB-l Kt— KB3
The KnigM't Game or Buy Lopez. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3
3. KB— QKt.5
The Queen'a PawtW Game, or Scotch Oambit.-^
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3
3. P— Q4
The Qaeen't Bishop's Paten's Game in tho
Knight's Opening. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. Kt.— KB3 Kt.— QB3
3. P— QB3
The Eino's Bishop's Opemihq,
The second opening, the King's Bishop's
Opening, has seven recognized variations,
all of which are important for the student
to know and he will also find them of par-
ticular interest. In the days of PhiUdor
and his contemporaries, this was consid-
ered the safest opening, as it demands
no initiatory sacrifice from the first play-
er and permits the Pawns to advance un-
CBEaS OPENINQB 109
obstructed, but modem players give it sec-
ond place and consider tbe King's Knight's
Opening the safest and most effective
means of attack. The variations under
the King's Bishop's Opening, with their
specific names, are : —
The Oame of the Two Kings' Biahopa. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB— QB4 KB-QB4
The Italian^ Defense. —
i. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB~QB4 KB— QB4
3. P— QB3 Q— KKt.4 '^
Me DonttelPa Douile Oamhit.
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB— QB4 KB— QB4
S. P— QKt.4 BXKt.P
4. P— KB4
The Lopes Oambit, —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB— QB4 KB--QB4
3. Q— K2 P— Q3
4. P— KB4
The King's Knight's Defense.—
1. P— K4 P— K4.
2. KB— QB4 Kt.— KB3
The Counter Qamhit. —
'l. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB— QB4 P— KB4 Cooglc
110 EOW TO PLAY CHESS
The Queen's Bishop's Pav-ti's Defense. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. KB— QB4 P— QB3
The Queek's Bishop's Opbnino.
The Queen's Bishop's Pawn's Opening
was a great favorite with European Chess
players in the sixteenth century, and Ruj
Lopez has devoted much space to it in his
oft-quoted work on Chess. Philidor, how-
ever, condemned it, but the Italian school
has proved that it can safely be adopted,
though it offers comparatively few oppor-
tunities for striking or instructive combi-
nations of play. The object of the open-
ing, on the part of the first player, Is to
occupy the center of the board with his
Pawns rather than to develop his Pieces.
The variations have no specific names, but
to illustrate this opening tlie student
should study the following preliminary
moves from games played by famous Chess
players. Only the first four moves of each
player are given.
2. P— QB3
4. P— K6
STAunroiT (white) vebsus
1. P— K4
2. P— QB3
3. Kt.— KB3
WALKER (WHITE) VERSUa B'
r. AMA«T (BLACK).
1. P— K4
2. P— <JB3
4. Kt.— KB3.
In tlie game between Captain Evans
and the amateur, Captain Evans was the
victor ; in the game between Staunton and
Cochran, Staunton won ; and in the game
between Walker and St. Amant, St. Amant
112 BOW TO FLAY CBESa
The Kino's Gambit,
The King's Gambit, the fourth of the
principal openings, is the delight of the
Chess player's heart as it affords oppor-
tunities for the moet intricate and scien-
tific combinations to which Chessmen are
subject, and their study gives the student
an almost unlimited fund of instruction
The variations of the King's Gambit,
with their specific names, are :
The Kin^e Gambit (Proper). —
1. P— K4 P~K4
2. P— KB4 PXP
The King's Knight's Qambtt. —
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. P— KB4 PXP
8. Kt.— KB3
The Ctinninghatn Oambit. —
1. P~K4 P~K4
2. P~KB4 PXP
3. Kt.— KB3 B~K3
The Balvio and Cochrane Oambit,—
1. P— K4 P— K4
2. P— KB4 PXP
3. Kt.— KB3 P— KKt.4
, KB— <1B4
Q— RG (ch.)
, (According to Coch-
(According to SalvioJ
Kt.-KBBq. or ^3
The Mitsio Gambit.—
, P— K4
, P— KB4
, KT.— KB3
0—0, or P— g4
n« AOgaier OamUt.-
The King's Book's Paiwi's Oambit.—
The King's Bishop's Qiunhil.—
Thd Gambit Declined.
When the Gambit is declined Black's
second move is generally one of tlie fol-
114 BOW TO FLAY CBE8S
KB— QB4, P— Q3, or P— Q4.
The second move is objectionable, as it
confines the King's Bishop, a Piece that
the student will learn to use with advaU'
The Queen's Gambit.
Another Cheaa opening, with which the
student should be familiar, is the
queen's qambit. While it requires less
skill and brilliancy of plaj than the
King's Gambit, it is improving for the
student to study, as it offers Mm practice
in accuracy of play. It is notated
thus : —
1. P— 04 P-Q4
2. P— QB4 PXP
When the Queen's Gambit is declined.
Black's second move is generally one of
the following: —
P— K3, P— QB3, or P— KB3.
Before leaving the subject of openings,
a word may be said of irseouiae open-
OBBBB OFESmOS 115
INOS. They are generally recognized
aa those in which the first move of
each player is some other than P — K4, or
P — Q4. Stauntcsi, however, classifies
them as those of attack, in which the first
player's first move is either P — CB4 op
P — QB4 and those of defence in which
the second player, in answering the first
player's first move, P — K4 or P — Q4,
moves his P— K3, P— QB4, P— KB4, or
The student cannot give too much time
to the study of End Games, for it is here
that be can put to the test the information
that he has acquired in studying the ele-
mentary principles of play. The End
Game, he will remember, ia the third di-
vision of a game of Chess when there are
BO few Pieces and Pawns upon the board
that theoretical analysis of the moves has
again become possible. All games, how-
ever, do not reach this stage, as it fre-
quently happens that checkmate is given
by a strong combination of forces after the
opening moves, when the Pieces and
Pawns are so far developed that the analy-
sis of the moves which characterized the
opening are no longer possible; but the
student need not devote hia time to this
END QAMEB 117
part of the game, aa it ia treated in a later
To illustrate the science of manipulat-
ing the Chessmen, when there are only a
few left .on the board, the following ex-
amples have been selected from standard
works on the subject If the student has
made a careful study of the contents of
the preceding chapters, he will have no
difficulty in following the moves and in
understanding the reasons for making
The student should have his board set
up for each example as indicated so that
he can follow each move.
Example I. — ^Whitb King and Qoeen
Aqaihst Black Kino.
The Black King occupies K4, the White
King Q3, and the White Queen Qaq, as
indicated on diagsam xv.
White has the first move and the stu-
dent will see that his best plan of attack is
to drive the adverse King into a «omer
118 HOW TO FLAT CBEBa
or to the aide of the board, bring his own
King as close as possible, and give cbeck
END GAME, EXAMPLE I.
King and Queen Againet King.
with his Queen. As Black holds the cen-
ter of- the board, his position is as good aa
END QAMEB 119
possible, considering the odds. White
must he careful not to give stalemate.
The game is won by White in nine moves
and is notated thus: —
1. (l-Kt.4 K— Q4
2. Q— K4(eh.)
3. Q— Q4 (eh.)
4. K— B4
fi. K— Kt.6
7. Q-Q7 (ch.)
8. K— Kt.6
9. Q— QS, (mate).
The student will note that, for White's
ninth play, there were four other moves
which he might have made, all of which
would have enabled him to win the game ;
they are Q— Kt. 7, Q— B8, Q— Q8 or
This example of an End Game illus-
trates the importance of the Queen as a
mating force, and also illustrates, to the
student, how important it is for him to
protect her so that he can use her in jvat
120 BOW TO I'LAY CBESa
such methods of attack as were seen in
the moves just notated. Black, having
neither a Piece nor a Pawn on the board,
could only hop© to win by a drawn game
if White had given a stalemate.
Example II. — White Kino and Rook
Agaiitst Black Kino.
The Bladi King occupies QKt.4, the
White King QKt. sq., and the White
Hook QKsq,, as indicated on diagbau xvi.
This example illuatratea the strength of
the Eook as a mating force and, as in the
former example, White's method of attack
is to comer the adverse King. The posi-
tion is in White's favor, as Black is al-
ready near the side of the hoard. The
moves of the Rook, however, are more re-
stricted than those of the Queen, so it
takes eleven moves before White can give
checkmate. The game is notated thus: —
1. K— Kt.2 K— B5
2. R— Qaq.! K— B4
3. K— B3 K— Kt.4
4. R— Q5 (ch.)
6. K— B4
6. R— 06 (oh.)
7. K— B6
END GAME, EXAMPLE II.
King and Rook agoinat King,
8. R— Q7 (ch.) K— Ra
9. K— B6. K— R4
10. R— Q4 K— Ra, Coogic
11. R— R4, (mate).
122 BOW TO PLAY CBE88
If the Student will go over these moves
again, he will see that White, in his sec-
ond turn, could have given check by play-
ing R — QBsq., but that would have forced
the King to play to Q5, which would
have enabled him to get into tiie center
of the board, which ia just where White
did not want him; hence the move K —
Qsq. was an excellent play. The stu-
dent also sees that Black's ninth and tenth
moves were forced moves, as White had
left him no choice. While illustrating the
use of the Bodi in the End Game, this
example also shows the stud^it that it
is sometimes better to let what appears
to be a good move go by, for if White had
taken advantage of his opportunity to give
check it would have taken him a long time
to force his adversary to the side of the
board again. When the player has a
dioice of moves he should always consider
the consequences and deliberate carefully
before he plays.
END GAMES 123
ExAUPLs III. — White Kino, Bishop
AND Knioht Against Black
King and Pawn.
The White King occupies QB6, the
White Bishop Q6, the White Knight Q7,
the Black King QR3 and the Black Pawn
QKt.4, as indicated on diagkam xvii.
The Knight is generally used to beet
advantage in lie Middle Game, as his
progress is not hampered by intervening
forces, but in this illustration of an End
Game, he is used most successfully in eon-
junction with the Bishop. The student
will see that Black's only hope lies in
queening his Pawn, for then he will be as
well off as if he had not already lost his
Queen. His efforta are in vain, however,
for White wins in six moves. The game
is notated thus : —
1. B— Kt.4 K— R2
2. B— B5 (ch.) K— R.!
8. K— Kt.a P— Kt.5
4. K— R6 P— Kt.9
6. B— Qa P— Kt.7
8 Kt— Kt. 6, (mate). , - ,
' ' D5-,.-..l„C-.OOgiC
124 HOW TO FLAY CSE8B
This example also illustrates White's
attacking method of forcing his Opponent
END GAME, EXAMPLE III.
King, Bishop, and Knight against King and Pawn.
into the corner in order to checkmate him.
SND 6AUB8 126
EsAUPLB IV. — White King ahd Paww
AaAiNsr Blace Kiira.
The White King occupies Kaq., the
White Pawn KS, and the Black King
Ksq., 88 indicated on stAasAu xviu.
The student will note that both Kings
occupy their original positions at the be-
ginning of the game. White has the ad-
vantage, having a Pawn, but his success
depends upon his ability to queen it.
This illustration is interesting, as it takes
White twelve moves in order to win,
when he plays first ; while if Black has the
first move, White gives stalemate in the
fifteenth move and the game is a draw.
If White moves first the game is notated
I. K— B2
2. K— K3
3. K— K4
4. P— K3
E. K— B5
6. K— K5
7. K— Q8
HOW TO PLAT CBESa
». P— K5
10. K— K6
12. P— K6(eh.)
END GAME, EXAMPLE IV.
King and Pawn against King.
Black has to move to avoid the check
nnd as White can Queen his Pawn in two
ESD OAMEa 127
moves and as the White King is so situ-
ated that he protects the Pawn until it is
Queened, there is nothing of advantage to
Black that he can do.
If Black had had the first move, the
game would have resulted in a stalemate
after White's fifteenth move. It is no-
tated thus: —
2. K— B2
3. E— E3
4. K— Q3
6. P— K4 (ch.)
6. K— K3
7. K— B4
8. P— K5 (ch.)
9. K— K4
10. K— QS
11. P— Ka (eh.)
12. K— K5
13. K— B6
14. P— K7(eh.)
16. K— K6 (stalemate).
ExAMFLB V. — White King and Two
Bishops Against Black King.
The White King occupies Ksq., the
White King's Bishop KBsq., the White
128 BOW TO PLAT CBE88
Queen's Bishop QBsq. and the Black King
IKsq., aa indicated on diaobam xix.
END GAME, EXAMPLE V.
King and Two Bishopg against King.
The student will note that each Piece
occupies its original position at the begin-
END GAMES 129
ning of the game. White's method of at-
tack is to force his adversary into a cor-
ner square or into one that adjoins a cor-
ner and then checkmate with the Bishop
that is on the square in the same diag-
onal. White can accomplish this in four-
teen moves. The game is notated thus : —
1. B— KR3
2. B— KB4
3. K— K2
4. K— KB3
6. B— KB5
6. K— KKt.4
7. K— KKt.5
8. K— KB6
e. B— QB7
10. B— Q7
11. K— KKt6
13. B— K8(cli.)
14. B— K5 (mate).
The possibiliti^ for Black to win in
this game are so small that the only thing
for him to do is to move back and forth,
postponing White's victory as long as pos-
sible. There are many instances, how-
130 BOW TO PLAT CHE8B
ever, where the odds are in favor of one
player, which result in a drawn game be-
cause the lone King cannot be forced from
Bome advantageous position that he has
Example VI. — White King, Bishop
AND Pawn Against Black King.
The White King occupies KB4, the
White Bishop K2, the White Pawn KR5
and the Black King Qsq., as indicated on
This Example illustrates a drawn game,
White having the advantage in numbers
and Black the advantage in position. Un-
like most of the other illustrative End
Game positions, White's hope of winning
lies in his ability to keep the adverse King
from getting in a comer and this is just
what, he succeeds in doing. The game is
drawn after Black's fifth move. Black
plays first. The game is notated thus: — ■
3. B— Q5
5. P— E6
END GAME, EXAMPLE VI.
King, Bishop and Pawn against King.
Aa 'VVTiite cannot force Blacfc toleavic
i_. , . , t.,oo>;r
his comer, the game la drawn. '-^
The Middle Game, as the student has
already learned, is that stage of a game of
Chess when the Pieces and Pawns are so
far developed that theoretical analysis is no
longer possible, as it was in the opening
moves. At this point, all of the player's
skill in the art and science of combina-
tion is put to the test and many of the
most brilliant Cbesa players are able to
give mate without letting the game reach
what the student has already learned to
be End Qame positions. It is of particu-
lar importance, therefore, for the student
to give the contents of this chapter care-
ful attention, following the moves on his
own board and studying out variations for
himself. Only in this way can he mas-
MIDDLE QAMEB 133
ter the diflBcultiea which confront the ama-
teur in Middle Game positions.
The student should arrange his board
for each example as indicated in the dia-
GBAMs and follow each move.
Example I. — Position developed from
a Euy Lopez Qambit
White's forces should be arranged thus:
K on KKt.Bq., B on QKtS, Kt. on KB,
Es on QBsq., and Qsq., Ps on KR2,
KKt2, KB3, QB4 and QKt.5.
Black's forces should be arranged thus :
K on KBsq., Kt8. on KB3, and K2, Rs on
Esq. and QR2 and Pa on KR3, KKt.2,
EB4, QKt.3, and QE4. (See diagram
White has the first move and wins after
his ninth move aa Black resigns. The
game is notated thus:
1. P— B6!
2. R— <i6l
4. P— Kt.6
t HOW TO FLAT CBE8B
7. BXKt. (dis. eh.). Kt— Ksq.
8. P— Kt.7I R— R2
9. B— Q8. Eesignfl.
White has to make the most of the posi-
tion of the adverse King, which he does
most successfully in his first four moves.
MIDDLE QiMES 135
though in bis fifth move be might have
played B — ^B4, still holding the King,
Tfhich would have been even stronger than
the move he made. His eighth move,
however, is good and he wins easily after
bis ninth play as Black cannot escape.
Example II. — From a match between
Morphy and Harrwitz. It la considered
a model of its kind and unsurpassed in
the history of the game.
White's forces should be arranged thus:
K on KKt.sq., E on QKt.8, Kt. on Q8,
and Ps on QE3, Q5, K3, KB4, KKt.2
Black's forces Hhould be arranged thus :
K on K2, B on Q2, R on QE3 and Ps
on QB4, Q3, K5, KB4, KKt.2 and KR5.
(See DIAGRAM xxn.)
Black (Morphy) has the first move and
vrins. The Game is notated thus :
2. K— B2
3. K— K2
4. Kt.— Ba(ch.)
HOW TO PLAY CEE8B
6. K— Q2
7. K— Baq.
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE II.
8. R— Kt.3 K— B3
9. R— R3 P— Kt.*
10. P— Kt.3 RPXP >..i00gic
11. RPXP PXP
12. KtPXP K— KT.3
13. R— R5 R— B4
14. R— Rfl R— B6
15. RXP(eh.) K— R4
16. R— Q2 K— Kt.5
17. R— Kt.2(ch,) K— B«
18. R— Kt.5 R— B4
IS. R— R5 KXP
20. R— R4 K— B8, etc. ■
The student will note that Black has
made such brilliant combinations with his
forces that, there is almost nothing for
White to do but move his Eook back and
forth from one square to another.
Example III. — Position developed
from & Ruy Lopez Gambit.
White's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on KRsq., Q on QB4, E on
Qsq., Kt. on Q5 and Ps on KR2, KKt.2
KB3, K4, QKt.3 and QE2.
Black's forces should he arranged
thus: — K on KKt.aq., Q on Qsq., R on
QBsq., Kt. on Q5 and Ps on Kr2, KEL'^jc
138 BOW TO PLAY CEESa
KB2, Q3, QB4 and QR4. (See diaobam
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE IIL
White has the first move and wing for
Black's position is hopelesa after White's
ninth move. The game is notated thus : —
2. Kt— K7(ch.)I
6. K— Kt^q.
7. P— K5
8. K— K2
9. K— Q3 and wins.
The student will note that, for White's
second play, he mig^t have moved Q X ^
but if he had made that play, although
he would have captured an adverse Piece,
it would have lost him the game.
ExAMFLB . IV. — Position developed
from a Giuoco Piano.
White's forces should he arranged
thus:— K on KBeq., Q on ES, Ks on K8
and KB5, B on Qkt.3, and Ps on KK4,
KKt.3, K4, QB3, QKt.4, and QE2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on KR3, Q on KKt. 3, Rs on
KKt.5 and Q7, Kt. on KR2, and Ps on
KR4, KB2, QB2, QKt.2 and QKt.3.
(See DIAQBAM XXIV.) D5-,.-.ii„GoO«iic
L40 HOW TO PLAT CSEBB
White plays first and wins. The game
s notated thus: —
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE IV.
1. R— KKt.8! QXR
2. RxP(ch.) K— KKt3
3. Q— KB5(ch.) K— KKt2
MIDDLE QAUEB 141
4. QXRfch.) K— Raq.
6. Q— KB4 Q— Qsq.
e. B-<i5 R— QKt.T
7. QXKBP and wins.
The student will see that White made
splendid combinatioDS with hia forces so
that Slack was quite powerless to resist
them. Under the circumstances, Black
did the best he could.
Example Y. — Game developed from a
Lopez Gambit and played between Mac-
kenzie and Steinitz.
White's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on KEsq., Q on KB2, R on
KBsq., Bs on KKt.5 and QB2 and Ps on
KI12, KKt2, QB3, QKt2 and QR2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on EKtsq., Q on QB3, R on
Esq., Bs on KEt2, and QKt.2, and Ps
on KK2, KKt.3, KB2, Q4, QB5, QKt.4
and QR3. (See diagram xxv.)
Black plays first and the game results in
perpetual check after White's sixth .move.
The game is notated thus: — ' --^
BOW TO FLAY CBB88
4. B— K4I QXB
5. B— B8(ch.) BXB
MIDDLE GAMES 143
This example of a Middle Game posi-
tion resulting in a perpetual check is most
ingenioua and mnst have been wholly un-
expected to the players. While Black had
the original advantage, he lost it by his
first move. His object, evidently, was to
queen his Pawn, but his first move was
weak and caused him to lose what he had
gained hy his opening moves.
ExAMPtE VI. — Illustrates the advan-
tages and disadvantages of open files.
White's forces should be arranged
thus :— K on QBaq., Q on QB4, Kt on
KI14, Rs on KRBq. and Qsq., and Pa on
KKt2, KKt.4, K5, QB3 and QIt2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on KRsq., Q on KB2, Kt. on
QR3, Ea on QEsq. and KBsq., and Ps
on KE2, KKt.3, QB3, QKt.2 and QE2.
(See DIAOKAM ZXVI.)
The student will note from the position
of White's King that the player has evi-
dently castled with hia QK. White plays
144 HOW TO PLAT CHESS
first and mates in five moves. The game
is notated thus: —
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE VI.
1. QR— Bsq.
2. Et.— Kt.fl(ch.)
D, -,.... ..Googic
MIDDLE OAME8 145
3. Kt.— K7(eli.) K— Raq.
4. RXP(ch.) KXK
5. R — Rsq. (mate).
The error in Black's play was to take
the adverse Queen, as it made an opening
in the guard of his King that he could not
repair. The open files were an advantage
to White, but they were fatal to Black.
Example VII. — Position developed
from a PetrofPa (Russian) Defense-
White's forces should he arranged
thus:— K on KKtaq., Q on QKt.7, QKt.
on QKt.sq., KKl on KB3, QB on QBsq.,
KB on Q3 and Ps on KE2, KKt.2, KB2,
Q4, QKt2 and QE2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus: — K on KKtsq., Q on Qsq., Es on
QRsq. and KBsq., Kts. on K5 and Q2, Bs
on Q3 and K3, and Ps on KE2, KKt.2,
KB4, QB5, QB2 and QK2. (See dia-
White plays first, but Black wins. The
game ia notated thus : — ^ „ Goo«;lc
BOW TO PLAY CBESB
1. BXKt. QR— KUq.
2. QXRP PXB
3. Kt— Kt.5 B— Q4
MIDDLE GAME, EXAMPLE VII.
MIDDLE GAMES 147
7. P— KKt.3 Q— Kaq.
8. Kt.— B4 BXKt.
9. BXB Q— B4
10. P— KE4 ExBr
11. PXR P— Ka
12. P— B3 QXRP and wins.
White made a poor play in his second
move by taking the Pawn. He should
have moved to QR6, after which the
Queen could have been played to QE4 and
■with the Knight on QKtsq., a good attack
could have been developed. The capture,
however, only lost time and enabled Black
to gather his forces for an attack on the
White King. As it is, White has to try
to save his Queen and cannot develop his
QKt. The student will note, in going
over the moves in this game, that White
does not give check once, and that Black
&ho gathers his forces for the attack in
such a way that he does not give check un-
til there is no escape for his adversary.
Black's moves are carefully made and
should be studied.
When the student has reached this con-
cluding chapter, he should have a thor-
ough knowledge of the general principles
of the moves, and understand the laws of
the game. He should also be sufficiently
familiar vrith the Openings and with End
and Middle Game positions to meet, and
compete favorably, with the average Chess
player. In fact, there is no elementary
point that can be discussed in a hand hook
on the game, that has not been explained
and illustrated. But for that skill and
scientific knowledge that distinguishes
the professional from the amateur, he
must play frequently with experienced
players and also study the books that are
devoted to some one particular feature of
the game. A number of titles are given
in die Bibliography which will prove help-
ful to the student who wisheB to go more
deeply into the fluhject.
Before closing, howeyer, the studeiat
may be interested in working out some
CbesB problems for himself, and for this
reason several have been selected from
Cnrioua Chess Problfflns in one of Staun-
If the student cannot solve these proV
lems, after he has given them a fair trial,
he will find a Key following them.
Pkoblbm I. — White, playing first,
mates in seven moves.
White's forces should be arranged
thus; — K on Qsq., Kts. on QKt.3, and
KB7, B on QKt.7, and Ps on QE2,
QKt.2, K4, EB2, and KEt.7.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on QB5, R on KKtsq., Kt. on
QB2, B on QKt.8q., and Ps on QKt.5,
QB4, K4, and KBS.
150 BOW TO PLAY CBES8
PfiOBLEM II. — White, playing first,
compels Black to mate him in fourteen
White's forces should be arranged
thus :— E on KRsq., Q on QKt.3, Its on
QKt.sq. and QEaq., Kts on QKt.8 and
QB5, Bs on QB3 and Kfi5, and Pa on
Q2, KE4, KKt.2 and KR2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus : — K on Ksq,, Q on K8, Kts. on
QBsq. and KKt.8, Ba on QK4 and KK6,
Es on K5 and KB6, and Ps on Q6 and
Pboblem III. — White, playing first,
mates in six moves.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus : — K on QB^q., Ba on QBsq. and
KE5, Kt. on K2, and Ps on QR2 and
White's forces should be arranged
thus:— K on KRsq., B on KKt.2, R on
Q5, Kt. on QBC, and Ps on QE6, QKt.6,
KKt.4 and KR3.
Problem IV. — Whit«, playing first,
compels Black to mate him in eight moves.
"Wliite'a foTcee elioald be arranged
thus: — K on Ksq., Q on K8, Kts. on
KKt.3 and Q4, Kb on QEsq. and K7, Bs
on QR2 and KB8, and Pa on KB2, K5,
.QB2 and QKt.2.
Black's forces should be arranged
thua:— K on QK3, Q on QB5., Kts. on
QKt. 2 and Q4, Ra on Q3 and QR5, and
Pb on KKt.5 and KB6.
Peoblhu V. — White, playing first,
mates in four moyes.
White's forces should be arranged
thus: — K on Esq., B on QRsq., B on
QKt.4, Kts. on QKt.7 and Q7 and Ps on
QB6 and QKt.3.
Black's forces should be arranged
thus: — K on K3, K on KB4, Kt on
iKE5, Bs on KE.6 and KKt.8, and Ps on
KB6 and K5.
In trying to solve these Problems, the
etaident will find it helpful to notate his
moves each time he tries, as it will save
him from repetition and will also help him
to find where his judgment has been at
fault if he fails. D5-,.-..i„Goo«iic
HOW TO PLAT 0HE8B
Eet to OHEaa PbobI/BUs.
1. Kt.— Q6(ch.) K— 06
2. P— QR3 R— Qsq.
3. P— EKt.8 (Bec<HiiM KXQ
4. Kt.— QBBq.(ch.)
6. K— Q2.
Where he wUL
4. Q— KB8(cb.)
8. Kt.oiiB6— (i7<die
1. K— Kt.2
7. BXKt. (dlB.cli.)
11. B— Q4
1*. B— QR«
QxB (Forced move.
1. P— QKt.7(eh.)
2. R— 07
4. E— QKtsq.(diB,
Where ha wiU.
6. R— QKt.8q(di8,
1. Q— QE8(ch.)
4. 0— 0— 0(ch.)
6. K— Kt.Bq.
7. P— <JB3(di.)
2. 0— 0— 0<ch.)
4. RXB (mate).
EzAUPLEs OF Mabtbb-Piay.
The importance of going over examples
of master-play has already been impressed
upon the student and, for this reason, sev-
eral games have been selected that the stu-
dent should play over on his own board.
He should have no difficulty in seeing why
154 HOW TO PLAY CBB88
each move is made and in understanding
the methods of attack and defense that are
ExAMPLB I. — Opened with a Fianchet-
to Defense, and played between Paulsen
(White) and "Alter" (Black), in Lon-
don in 1862.
White plays first and gives mate with
his twenty-fourth move. The game ia no-
tated thus: —
1. P— K4.
2. P— KKt3.
3. B— Kt2.
4. Kt— QB3.
5. KKt— K2.
11. Q— K5.
13. Q— B3.
14. B— R«.
15. P— B4.
17. RXB. ,
1». P— Ka.
21. B— K3.
23. P queens (ch.)
24. Q— Kt7(inate).
ExAMPLB II. — Opened with a King's
Bishop's Gamhit, and played between Kie-
seritzky (White) and Andersaen (Black).
White plays first and mates in his
twenty-third move. The game is notated
thus : —
1. P— K4.
2. P— KB4.
3. B— B4.
6. Kt— KB3.
7. P— Q3.
0. Kt— B5.
10. P— KKt4.
11. R— Ktaq.
12. P— KR4.
13. P— B5.
BOW TO PLAY CBEB8
14. Q— B3.
19. P— KB.
20. K— K2.
22. Q— Be(ch.)
Mates in next mo
This game is cODsidered one of the most
brilliant on record and is known among
Chess players as the " Immortal Game."
Example III. — Opened from a Guioco
Piano and played between Neuman
(Whitfi) and Von Guretzky-Comitz
(Black), in Berlin in 1863.
White plays first, and after seventeen
moves, Black resigns. The game is no-
tated thus : —
2. BLt— KB3.
3. B— B4.
4. P— B3.
6. P— 04.
e. K— Ksq.
10. B— Kt3.
11. Kt— B3.
12. P— Q«.
14. B— KtS.
17. Q— QR4.
ExAMPLB IV. — Opened with a French
Defense and played between Blackbume
(White) and Schwarz (Black) at the
Berlin Congree in 1881.
White plays first and Black resigns
after the twenty-eighth move. The game
la notated thus; —
1. P— K4.
3. Kt— QB3.
6. B— Q3.
8. Kt— K2.
9. Kt— Kt3.
BOW TO FLAY CBE88
10. B— K3.
KR— K gq.
12. QR— Kaq.
Ifl. K— Kt2.
18. R— R3.
19. QR— Rsq.
20. B— KKt6.
21. P— QB4.
23. R— S4.
24. B— Kt3.
25. B— B6.
The final combination of forces in this
game is said to be one of tbe most brilliant
on record, and rarely surpassed iu actual
Example V. — Opened with a Phili-
dor'a Defense, and played between Morphy
(White) and Allies (Black) in 1858.
White plays first and mates in seventeen
moves. The game is notated thui;-^-^'.'^'
1. P— 4K.
3. P— 04-
11. BxQKtP (ch.)-
16. Q— Kt8(eh.).
17. R— Q8(mftto).
From White's tenth move on, be plays
a brilliant game and the student should
study it carefully, as it shows accuracy
These five examples of masterplay all
illustrate a scientific knowledge of the
game, and the student should play them
over several times on his own board, as
they will giv6 him many points on the de-
velopment of his forces after the positioM
160 BOW TO PLAT CBEBa
attained hj the opeoing moves, and they
will, also, help him in gathering his men
t(^ether for purposes of attack and de-
Chess Openings. I. Gunsbei^. (Lon-
don: George Bell & Son.)
Chess Player's Companion. Howard
Staunton. (New York: Macmillan Co.)
Chess Pocket Manual. G. H. D. Gos-
sip, (New York : Chas. Scribner'a
Chess Sparks. J". H. Ellis. (New
York: Longmans, Green & Co.)
Chess Strategetiea. Franklin K.
Young. (Boston: ' Little, Brown & Co.)
Game of Chess. P. C. Morphy. New
York: KacmiUan Co.)
Grand Tactics of Chess. Franklin K.
Young. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.)
Minor Tactics of Chess. Franklin K.
Young. (Boston: Little, Brown & Co.)
Model Chess Instructor. William
Steinmitz. (New York: G. P. Putnam's
162 HOW TO PLAY CUE88
Principles of Chess in Theory and Prac-
tice. James Mason. (London: Horace
Theory of Chess Openings. G. H. D.
Gossip. (New York: rrederick Warne
Two Move Chess Problems. E. G.
Laws. (London: George Bell & Sons.)